Marketing and Pricing
˝ŕÓ¸Ó˛Ř ŕÝŔŃˇ ßň˝´ŰÓ˛Ýţ
ĐţšńÓÝţ Ô ŔÝ˛ňŰŰňŕ˛ˇÓŰŘÝţÚ ŔšńÓ˛ňŰŘ˝ŕţÚ ˝Ŕ˝˛ňýň Ridero
└Ô˛ţ-˝ţ˝˛ÓÔŔ˛ňŰŘ: ┴╬═─└đ┼═╩╬ ┬ÓŰňŔÚ ĐňýňÝţÔŔ¸, ńţ÷ňÝ˛, ŕÓÝńŔńÓ˛ ŃňţŃÓ˘Ŕ¸ň˝ŕŔ§ ÝÓˇŕ (řŕţÝţýŔ¸ň˝ŕÓ , ˝ţ÷ŔÓŰŘÝÓ , ´ţŰŔ˛Ŕ¸ň˝ŕÓ ŃňţŃÓ˘Ŕ ). 2017áŃ.
─ÓÝÝűÚ ŕˇ˝ Űňŕ÷ŔÚ ´ňńÝÓšÝÓ¸ňÝ ńŰ ˝˛ˇńňÝ˛ţÔ ŔáýÓŃŔ˝˛ÓÝ˛ţÔ, Ŕšˇ¸Ó■¨Ŕ§ ¸Ó˝˛Ř ´ňńýň˛ţÔ ÝÓáÓÝŃŰŔÚ˝ŕţý šűŕň. ╩ˇ˝ Űňŕ÷ŔÚ ˝ţ˝˛ÓÔŰňÝ ÝÓáţ˝ÝţÔÓÝŔŔ ˇ¸ňßÝţÚ ´ţŃÓýýű ŔáţßÓšţÔÓ˛ňŰŘÝű§ ˝˛ÓÝńÓ˛ţÔ ńŰ řŕţÝţýŔ¸ň˝ŕŔ§ ˝´ň÷ŔÓŰŘÝţ˝˛ňÚ Ë┬╬: ź╠ŔţÔÓ řŕţÝţýŔŕÓ╗, ź┴ˇ§ŃÓŰ˛ň˝ŕŔÚ ˇ¸ň˛ ŔáÓˇńŔ˛╗, źŢŕţÝţýŔŕÓ ´ňń´Ŕ ˛Ŕ ╗, źďŔÝÓÝ˝ű ŔáŕňńŔ˛╗. ─ÓÝÝţň ´ţ˝ţßŔň Ó˝˝¸Ŕ˛ÓÝţ ÝÓáˇ¸Ó¨Ŕ§˝ , ¸ňÚ ˇţÔňÝŘ ÔŰÓńňÝŔ ÓÝŃŰŔÚ˝ŕŔý šűŕţý ˝ţţ˛Ôň˛˝˛Ôˇň˛ ˇţÔÝ ý Elemantary ŔŰŔ Pre-Intermediate, ˛ţ ň˝˛Ř ŕţŃńÓ ˇŠň ţ˝ÔţňÝ ˇţÔňÝŘ Beginner.
╩ˇ˝ Űňŕ÷ŔÚ ÔŕŰ■¸Óň˛ 14áŰňŕ÷ŔÚ, ŕÓŠńÓ Ŕšáŕţ˛ţű§ ţ˛ÓŠÓň˛ ţ˛ńňŰŘÝˇ■ ˛ňýˇ ŕˇ˝Ó ź╠Óŕň˛ŔÝŃ Ŕá÷ňÝţţßÓšţÔÓÝŔň╗. ╩ˇ˝ Űňŕ÷ŔÚ Ó´ţßŔţÔÓÝ Ôá´Óŕ˛Ŕŕň ˇ¸ňßÝţŃţ ´ţ÷ň˝˝Ó Ôá ńň Ë┬╬ ┴ňŰÓˇ˝Ŕ Ŕáđţ˝˝ŔŔ. ╩ÓŠńÓ Űňŕ÷Ŕ (˛ňýÓ ŕˇ˝Ó) ńÓÝÝţŃţ ´ţ˝ţßŔ šÓÔň°Óň˛˝ ŕÓ˛ŕŔýŔ ÔűÔţńÓýŔ Ŕ/ŔŰŔ Ôţ´ţ˝ÓýŔ ńŰ ´ţÔ˛ţňÝŔ , ŕţ˛ţűň ˛ÓŕŠň ýţŃˇ˛ ßű˛Ř Ŕ˝´ţŰŘšţÔÓÝű Ôáˇ¸ňßÝţý ´ţ÷ň˝˝ň ŕÓŕ ˛ňýÓ˛ŔŕÓ ň˘ňÓ˛ţÔ ŔŰŔ ńţŕŰÓńţÔ, ´ţá˝ţŃŰÓ˝ţÔÓÝŔ■ ˝á´ň´ţńÓÔÓ˛ňŰňý.
┬á˝´Ŕ˝ŕň ňŕţýňÝńţÔÓÝÝţÚ ŰŔ˛ňÓ˛ˇű ´ŔÔňńňÝű ţ˝ÝţÔÝűň Ŕ˝˛ţ¸ÝŔŕŔ ÝÓáˇ˝˝ŕţý šűŕň. ┬űßţ ÓÝŃŰţ šű¸Ýű§ Ŕ˝˛ţ¸ÝŔŕţÔ šÓÔŔ˝Ŕ˛ ţ˛áŕţÝŕň˛Ýű§ ÷ňŰňÚ ˇ¸Ó¨ňŃţ˝ , Óá˛ÓŕŠň ţ˛áňŃţ ˇţÔÝ ÔŰÓńňÝŔ ÓÝŃŰŔÚ˝ŕŔý šűŕţý. ═Ó´ţýŔÝÓňý, ¸˛ţ ˝˛ˇŕ˛ˇÓ Ŕá˝ţńňŠÓÝŔň ˇ¸ňßÝŔŕţÔ, ŔšńÓÝÝű§ ÔáĐě└ Ŕá┬ňŰŔŕţßŔ˛ÓÝŔŔ ˝ţţ˛Ôň˛˝˛Ôˇň˛ ˛ňßţÔÓÝŔ ý Ŕá´ţŃÓýýÓý ˇÝŔÔň˝Ŕ˛ň˛ţÔ ŔáŕţŰŰňńŠňÚ ř˛Ŕ§ ˝˛ÓÝ, Ŕá´ţ˛ţýˇ ˝ˇ¨ň˝˛Ôˇ■˛ šÝÓ¸Ŕ˛ňŰŘÝűň ţ˛ŰŔ¸Ŕ ţ˛áţ˝˝ŔÚ˝ŕŔ§ ŔáßňŰţˇ˝˝ŕŔ§ ´ţŃÓýý Ŕáˇ¸ňßÝŔŕţÔ, Óá˛ÓŕŠň ţ˛áˇ¸ňßÝŔŕţÔ ńˇŃŔ§ ˝˛ÓÝáĐ═├.
┬á´ţ ˝ÝŔ˛ňŰŘÝţÚ šÓ´Ŕ˝ŕň (explanatory note), ´ţýň¨ňÝÝţÚ ÔáÝÓ¸ÓŰň ŕˇ˝Ó Űňŕ÷ŔÚ, ˝˘ţýˇŰŔţÔÓÝű (ÝÓáÓÝŃŰŔÚ˝ŕţý šűŕň) ţ˝ÝţÔÝűň ÷ňŰŔ ŔášÓńÓ¸Ŕ ˇ¸ňßÝţÚ ńŔ˝÷Ŕ´ŰŔÝˇ, Óá˛ÓŕŠň ţ˝ÝţÔÝűň ŕţý´ň˛ňÝ÷ŔŔ, ŕţ˛ţűýŔ ńţŰŠňÝ ţßŰÓńÓ˛Ř ýÓŃŔ˝˛ÓÝ˛ Ŕáŕţ˛ţűň ˘ţýŔˇ■˛˝ Ôáˇ¸ňßÝţý ´ţ÷ň˝˝ň ˝á´ţýţ¨Ř■ ńÓÝÝţŃţ ŕˇ˝Ó Űňŕ÷ŔÚ.
SECTION 1. MARKETING
THEME 1. MODERN CONCEPT OFáMARKETING
1. Marketing as aábusiness philosophy
2. Basic concepts and scope ofámarketing
3. The principles ofámarketing and its functions
4. The structure ofá(complex) marketing
THEME 2. MARKETING RESEARCH
1. Marketing information system
2áThe essence ofámarketing research
3. Market research
THEME 3. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND CUSTOMERS
1áThe behavior ofábuyers ináthe consumer market
2. The behavior ofábuyers ináthe market enterprises
3. Consumer protection
THEME 4. COMMODITY POLICY
1. The essence ofácommodity policy
2. The essence ofáthe product and its classification
3. Trading range and variety ofáproducts
4. The process ofádeveloping new products and planning their life cycle
THEME 5.DISTRIBUTION POLICY
1. Purpose, Structure and function ofáthe distribution system.
2. Types ofádistribution channels
3áManagement ofáthe distribution channels
THEME 6. PROMOTION POLICY
1.The essence ofácommunication policy
2. The main tools ofácommunication policy
3. Budgeting and performance evaluation ofácommunication policy
THEME 7. Department ofáMarketing
1. The essence ofámanagement based on marketing
2. Marketing planning
3. The organization ofámarketing inábusiness
4. Control ofámarketing activities
THEME 9. THEORETICAL BASIS OFáPRICING
1. The evolution ofáthe theory ofápricing
2. The concept ofápricing ináthe Republic ofáBelarus
3. Pricing policy
THEME 10. PRICES INáTHE MECHANISM OFáTHE ECONOMY
1. The economic content ofáprices.
2. Factors that impact on prices.
3. Price system
4. Classification ofáprices.
THEME 11. State regulation ofáprices ináthe Republic ofáBelarus
1áThe need for state regulation ofáprices
2. Methods ofástate regulation ofáprices: indirect and direct
3. The policy ofástate regulation, carried out ináthe Republic ofáBelarus
THEME 12. METHODS AND PRICING STRATEGY
1. Pricing methods based on production costs
2. Methods ofápricing, quality-oriented and consumer product properties
3. Methods ofápricing, demand-driven, the level ofácompetition
4. Market-based pricing strategy
THEME 13. PRICES INáECONOMICS OFáBUSINESS
1. Selling price ofáthe enterprise and the order ofáits formation
2. Features ofápricing ináthe market ofáconsumer goods and services
THEME 14. PRICING INáMARKETING COMPANY
1. Technology justify prices ináthe marketing business
2. The information needed toámake decisions on prices
3. Study ofáconsumer response toáprice changes
Aápostgraduate ofádegree źMaster ofáEconomics╗ must have the following competences:
academic competencesáľ science, theoretical, methodological knowledge and research skills providing elaboration ofáresearch projects or solving tasks for scientific research, innovative activity, continuous self-education;
social and personal competencesáľ personal qualities and skills for following social, cultural, and moral values, social responsibility;
professional competencesáľ skills and abilities toásolve complicated professional problems ináresearch and educational activity, toáelaborate and adopt innovative projects.
Master should be ableáto:
Toágenerate new ideas.
Toáacquire new knowledge and skills independently, including the areas ofáknowledge that are not directly related toáthe field ofáactivity.
Toátake the initiative, including the situations ofárisk, toátake responsibility, toáresolve problem situations.
The requirements are for Masterĺs social and personal competencies
Master should be ableáto:
Toábe able toátake into account the social, moral and ethical standards inásocial and professional activities.
Toábe able toácooperate and work as aáteam.
Toáuse one ofáthe state languages ofáthe Republic ofáBelarus and any foreign language as aámeans ofábusiness communication.
Toágenerate and argue personal judgment and professional position.
Toáuse logical, reasoned, clear oral and written language, toáuse the skills ofápublic speaking, conducting discussion and debates.
Toáwork as aáteam, toálead and toáobey.
Toárespect and protect the historical heritage and cultural traditions, toáperceive social and cultural differences tolerantly.
Toátake the initiative and creativity, including unusual situations.
Toáadapt toánew situations ofásocial and professional activities, toáimplement the experience, possibilities.
The requirements are for Masterĺs professional competence
Master should be ableáto:
Assess the process taking place ináinternational economy, identify trends and prospects.
Analyze and develop recommendations toáimprove the national development strategy.
Use elements ofáeconomic analysis ináorganizing ofápractice ináthe workplace.
Toápossess modern means ofátelecommunications.
Toákeep professional, social and cultural communication ináaáforeign language.
The implementation ofáthese competences while studying the course źCurrent Global Issues╗ envisages the following tasks:
knowledge and understanding ofáthe concept źglobal issues╗;
awareness ofáexisting global problems;
having deep information about main historical events and tendencies which lead toáthe emergence ofáglobal problems;
analyzing current world political, economic, social, and cultural developments;
understanding the essence and main directions ofáglobalization process, its positive and negative aspects;
understanding the essence and content ofáthe main current global issues;
realizing interconnections and interactions between global problems and national and world economies state and trends ofádevelopment;
knowledge ofáthe role and activities ofáinternational organizations for overcoming global issues.
knowledge ofáthe contents ofámain international programs for solving global issues;
realizing manifestations ofáglobal issues inánative countries ofáaástudent;
skills and willingness toámake personal contribution ináovercoming global problems after taking position according toáobtained degree.
As aáresult ofáthe discipline studying the masterĺs students should
ľáthe subject and methodology ofáthe discipline;
ľáconcept and evolution stages ofáthe world economy theory;
ľástructure and development trends ofáthe world economy;
ľáconcept ofáthe international division ofálabour, its special aspects inácurrent conditions;
ľásubject-matter ofáinternationalization, transnationalization and globalization;
ľásubstance ofáinternational economic integration and its forms, special aspects ofáintegration process ináthe world economy;
ľácontent ofáinternational currency relations and their components;
ľáup-to-date theory and practice ofámacroeconomic regulation ináopen economy.
ľáestimate processes taking place ináthe world economy;
ľádetermine development trends and prospects for countries, groups ofácountries and the world economy;
ľáanalyse position ofáthe country ináinternational division ofálabour, degree ofáopenness ofáan economy;
ľáuse concepts ofáthe international division ofálabour and international trade;
estimate critically conditions ofáforeign economic relations and determine advanced directions for national economy participation ináthe world economic relation.
SECTION 1. MARKETING
THEME 1. MODERN CONCEPT OFáMARKETING
1. Marketing as aábusiness philosophy
At the core ofáthe term źmarketing╗ is the word źmarket╗, which means źthe market.╗ So, ináthe marketing one often understands the philosophy ofágovernance, economic conditions ináthe market, proclaiming the orientation ofáthe production toámeet the needs ofáspecific customers.
Marketing under its widest sense is aásocial and managerial process byáwhich individuals and groups ofápeople get what they need byácreating products and exchanging them. When aáperson is unable toámeet any need, he substitutes them or reduce the level ofáhis requests.
Phase Period Characteristics
I. beginning the twentieth centuryáľá40th
Marketing had aásales character. The motto: źEverything produced must be sold╗. Sales methods ofámarketing and advertising were applied
II. 50áyearsáľ first halfá70s
Marketing has been focused on the study ofáthe market and customer demands.
The principle is: źIt is advantageous toáproduce the products that will be inádemand than toáproduce something that struggles toásell.╗
III. second half 70ĺsáľ till present
Integrated market system covers the entire cycle ofádevelopment, production and sale ofágoods, including market research, implementation ofámerchandise, pricing, communication and policy, strategic marketing governance and other marketing techniques
Thus, the requirements are translated into specific desires, which ináview ofámonetary opportunities are transformed into market demand on the specific products. It appears the exchange between producers and consumers made out ináthe form ofáaáparticular transaction. It follows that the direct marketing economy toámeet the constantly changing needs ofáthe many millions ofáconsumers.
Ináother words, the marketing is aáphilosophy ofámanagement, direction ofáits implementation, when the resolution ofáconsumer problems leads toáthe success ofáthe organization and brings benefit toáthe society.
At the level ofáindividual economic entities marketing is defined as aácomplete system for planning the variety and quantity ofáproduced products, pricing, distribution ofáproducts between the chosen markets and toápromote their sales ináorder toáachieve the diversity ofábenefits, led toáthe satisfaction ofáthe interests ofáboth producers and consumers. This definition has aásufficiently broad sense, as it covers the activities ofánon-profit organizations. Thus, marketing is the activity ofáthe organization for the benefit ofáits customers.
Ináaámore narrow sense (entrepreneurial) the marketing can be classified as aámanagement system ofáproduction and sales management organization aimed at obtaining an acceptable value profit through accounting and active influence on market conditions.
From the above it follows that aávariety ofámarketing applications causes aávariety ofáits definitions.
It seems that as aáfairly general definition ofámarketing can be offered. Marketing is aáform ofáhuman activity toámeet the demand for the material and non-material, social, value through mutually beneficial exchange.
Thus, marketing is also aásystem ofáthought and action system.
2.áBasic concepts and scope ofámarketing
The concept ofáneeds is at the core ofátheories ofámotivation (Freud, Maslow, etc.), determining the behavior ofáconsumers ináthe market. The main task ofámarketing is toáfind aáneed and meetáit.
Desire is the need toátake concrete shape ináaccordance with the level ofáculture and personality ofáthe individual. Sometimes it is called concretized need. For example, the total demand for food is transformed into aámore private demand ináthe fruit, which, ináturn, concretized results ináthe need, the desire toábuy apples.
Demand is aádesire, aáspecific need, backed byápurchasing power. For given resource capabilities people satisfy their needs and desires through the purchase ofágoods that bring them the greatest benefit and satisfaction.
Product is all that can be offered on the market for the acquisition, use or consumption ináorder toámeet specific needs.
Product is all that can satisfy any needs (physical goods, services, people, organizations, activities, ideas). Ináthe literature on marketing the English term źproduct╗ is often translated as źgoods╗. It is understood that the product manufactured byáthe manufacturer, with translational division byábecoming aácommodity market.
Exchange is the act ofáobtaining aádesired product from someone byáoffering him something ináreturn. Exchange is just one ofáthe many ways means ofáwhich people get the desired product. Another way is hunting, gardening. This includes theft and begging.
The deal is trading between the two sides, including at least two subjects ofáinterest and agreement on the terms, timing and months, those ofáits implementation. There are two types ofátransactions: cash transaction when goods are exchanged for money and barter transaction. The deal involves the performance ofáthe following conditions: the presence ofáat least two products representing the interest for the mutual exchange, the agreed conditions, time and place ofáits commission.
The market ináthe marketing sense is aácollection ofáexisting or potential sellers and buyers ofáany products; itĺs aáplace where deals are made. It is on the market the manufactured product and labor on it expended prove their social importance, acquire recognition among consumers. Inámodern society, the market does not necessarily have aáphysical location. Toádemonstrate the product, its advertising and getting the orders modern means ofácommunication, without physical contact with customers are widely used. (Inámarketing, the market is the set ofáconsumers ofáaáparticular product, they say, the market ofámetal, grain, etc. On the basis ofáthis principle market segmentation is often carried).
3.áThe principles ofámarketing and its functions
There are the following marketing principles:
1. Careful consideration inádeciding the needs, conditions and dynamics ofádemand and market conditions.
Adherence toáthis principle requires aágood knowledge ofáthe market situation and on the existing estimates ofáexpected demand, activities ofácompetitors ináthe market, the market behavior ofáconsumers and ofáthe ratio ofáthe products ofáthis company and its competitors.
2. Creating the conditions for maximum device production toámarket demand, the structure ofádemand based not on short-term gain and long-term perspective.
The modern concept ofámarketing is that all activities ofáthe company (scientific, technical, manufacturing, marketing, etc.) were based on knowledge ofáconsumer demand and changes ináperspective.
3. Toáinform potential customers about the products and the impact on the organization ofáconsumers using all available means, first ofáall advertising, ináorder toáinduce them toápurchase exactly the product.
The marketing function
Formation ofáTrade Policy
ľáThe development ofáthe concept ofácommodity
ľáTaking into account the life cycle ofáthe goods;
ľáCreation ofáproduct attributes;
ľáDevelopment ofánew products,áetc.
Implementation ofáthe marketing policy
ľáThe definition ofáthe concept ofámarketing;
ľáSelect the channel distribution;
ľáControl ofáproduct distribution processes,áetc
The organization ofácommunication policy
ľáThe organization ofáadvertising;
Strategic management ofábranding
ľáPlanning ofámarketing activities;
ľáThe organization ofáthe service brand-Thing;
4.áThe structure ofámarketing complex
According toáKotler marketing complex is aácollection ofáallowing controll marketing variables, the set ofáwhich the company uses ináan effort toáinduce the desired reaction on the part ofáthe title ofáthe market.
The components ofáthe marketing complexáare:
Ľ Trade policy.
Product is aáset ofáźgoods and services╗, which the company offers toáthe target market. Thus, aánew painkiller could be aáźcommodity╗ ináthe form ofáaá50áwhite tablets ináaáwhite bottle with aácap that cannot close the children of, aáthree year shelf life, branded name źAveline╗ and aámoney back guarantee inácase ofádissatisfaction with the buyer.
Ľ Communication policy (sales promotion).
Methods ofáincentives are all sorts ofáactivities ofáthe company ináorder toáspread information about the merits ofáthe goods and toáconvince consumers toábathe ináit. The company pays advertising, hires salespeople pushes the product with special events, organize its propaganda.
Ľ Sales Policy.
Methods ofádistribution are all sorts ofáactivities, through which product becomes available toátarget consumers. Thus, the firm chooses wholesalers and retailers, toáconvince them toápay for the goods more attention and care for the good ofáhis computation, it looks the over-passes and provides efficient transport and storage.
Ľ Pricing policy.
Price is amount ofámoney that consumers have toápay for the obtaining ofágoods. The company offers retail and wholesale prices, favorable prices and discounts, sales on credit. The price should correspond the perceived value ofáthe offer, otherwise buyers will acquires competitorsĺ products.
This structuring ofáthe (complex) marketing fits into the concept ofáź4P╗, according toáwhich ináthe marketing complex includes 4áelements, the name ofáthe English language which begin with the letter źP╗: product, promotion, place, price.
THEME 2. MARKETING RESEARCH
1.áMarketing information system
Ináaáwell-functioning organizations marketing information is collected, analyzed and distributed as part ofáaámarketing information system (MIS), which is part ofáthe management information system ofáorganization.
MIS concept originated ináthe United States, where it was put into implementation ináthe early ĺ70s, aáfew years after the development ofáthe concept ofáan automated control system (ACS) ináthe case ofáindividual-governmental organizations.
MIS is aácollection (single set) ofápersonnel, equipment, procedures, and methods for collecting, processing, analysis and distribution ofáthe set time reliable information necessary for the preparation and making marketing decisions. It is sometimes said that the MIS is aáway ofáthinking through solutions toáfind the necessary managers frames marketing information. It is recognized that the leaders and specialists ofámarketing are ináneed ofáspecific information and the methods ofáits receipt. Thus, the MISáľ is aáconceptual system that helps toásolve the problem ofáhow marketing and objectives strategic planning.
The scheme ofáaámarketing information system is as follows:
Marketing Information System
According toáPhilip Kotler, the four components that comprise the MIS are Internal Reports (Records) System, Marketing Research System, Marketing Intelligence System, and Marketing Decision Support System.
1.Internal Records: It records various data from different department ofáaácompany, which is regarded as aámajor source ofáinformation.
2.Marketing Intelligence System: It is aámain source used byámanagers for gaining daily information ofáthe external environment, hence assists the managers toáreact toáthe changing rapidly.
3.Marketing Research System: It is used toácollect primary and secondary data, and displays the results ináforms ofáreports.
4.Marketing Decision Support System: Compared toáthe supply ofáthe data byáthe three previous systems, it focuses more on processing the data.
MIS transforms data from internal and external sources into information necessary for managers and professionalsĺ marketing services. MIS distributes information toámanagers and specialists ofámarketing services, taking appropriate decisions. Ináaddition, ISI, interacting with other automated systems ináthe enterprise, delivers the right information managers ofáother services enterprises. Internal information contains data on orders for products, sales, shipment ofágoods, the level ofáreserves, the payment ofáshipped products. Data from external sources are obtained on the basis ofámarket intelligence and market research.
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