Николай Камзин.

Theory and practical aspects of Internationa settlements. Economic cooperation

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The world and its phenomena are dynamic, if at first glance, it seems otherwise, it is necessary either to change the lens, or just look at a different angle. To maintain the momentum of the dynamics in economic relations, but mostly for her influence on a public entity governed by the calculated ratio of participants. Every sovereign in its territory shall have the power to establish its own unit of account, the currency in which there shall be canceled and liabilities. Part 1[19]19
  Конституция Российской Федерации (ред. 30.12.2008) // Российская газета. -. 2009. – № 7. («Денежной единицей в Российской Федерации является рубль. Денежная эмиссия осуществляется исключительно Центральным банком Российской Федерации. Введение и эмиссия других денег в Российской Федерации не допускаются»).

, Art. 75 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation shall establish circulation in the Russian monetary unit of the Russian Federation granted the exclusive right to issue ruble Russian central bank to ban the introduction of other money. External essence of money is being used for correspondence of mutual obligations, to implement the “exchange opportunities”[20]20
  Menger K. Principles of economics. – Auburn. Ludwig von Mises Institute. 2007. – P. 257.

, as wrote Carl Menger. The inner essence of the concentration of labor, the expression of what they are in the form of purchasing power, the “price of money”[21]21
  Шумпетер Й.А. Теория экономического развития. – М.: Директмедиа Паблишинг. 2008. – С. 125.

as refined J.A. Schumpeter.

Performing a logical ascent from mental image to a man to institutional education, to the sovereign state, and being fixed at an intermediate stage – the world community, promote mutual problem needs economically active subjects remains valid. For “movement is life” and human activities on behalf of the individual, society and the purpose and means of subsistence, as Ludwig von Mises wrote in his book “Human Action. A Treatise on Economics”[22]22
  Ludwig von Mises.

Human Action. A Treatise on Economics. – San Francisco. Fox & Wilkes. 1996. – 906 p.

[Закрыть]. Thus, the calculations, as a catalyst for the movement are the object of attention of all participants in community activities and are worthy of a comprehensive study of the scientific community, in particular in the spectrum of the mechanics of their conduct.

In the legal field, the obligation arising from attempts to satisfy the immediate need, the subject of law contradistinguish contractor generates a chain of activities on the “domino effect” from the counterparty to the counterparty. Continuity, stability, completeness of each act of this activity is important for the international community, in view of universal interconnection and interdependence, in order to avoid a negative result from the “butterfly effect” is able to break out. Assessing the prospects for the future, it would be foolish to give much weight to things, uncertain[23]23
  Кейнс Дж. М. Конец laissez-faire. – M.: ГУ-ВШЭ. 2001. – С. 212.


In the material world match the actual set of circumstances under the influence of events and actions previously agreed plan indicates the proper performance of mutual obligation that generates confidence in this subject, and strengthens its intangible asset called reputation. Similarly, in physics, developed a theory that the hypothesis, the assumption by the actual evidence, a single point of coincidence of the hypothesis with the actual reality of nature, becomes a theory, and exists as long as there is no other confirmation of the hypothesis refuted.

To explain the same set of experimental data can be offered different theories. Check them with the output of these effects, which are available testing experience. The content of these consequences should be different from the content of the data used in constructing the theory. If such effects do not withdraw, then the theory is fundamentally unverifiable[24]24
  Мамзина А.С. История и философия науки. – СПб.: Питер. 2008. – С. 66.

. “Nothing comes from nowhere and does not disappear”. Describing the practice entrepreneur J.A. Schumpeter coined the term “neue Kombinationen”[25]25
  Schumpeter J.A. Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung. Siebentes Kapitel. Das Gesamtbild der Volkswirtschaft. – Leipzig.: Duncker & Humblot. 1912. – P. 4.

. A person is in principle an employer only if it “carries neue Kombinationen” – it ceases to be such when they established the “case” will continue to operate within the circuit. That is, the entrepreneur provides practical innovation. If his idea is successful, the economic actors who have less marked the beginning of a creative appreciate it. According to George A. Akerlof are naturally the first entrepreneurs to become merchants who have skill to determine the quality of inputs and to certify the quality of the finished product[26]26
  Akerlof G.A. The Market for «Lemons»: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism // The Quarterly Journal of Economics. – 1970. – v. 84. – P. 496.

. There is a natural introduction of the idea of the inner world of business with the potential employer, and they interpret the innovation, organizing commercial “case”. Globalization of economic space allows creative individuals to gain access to information resources around the world and generate any actual ideas. Business entities to choose innovative projects and implement them in any area, from their point of view, the most commercially friendly.

Production, as is known, is the interaction of various factors[27]27
  Фахретдинов Р.Г. Проблемы равновесия производителя на аграрном рынке // Экономические науки. – 2009. – № 9 (58). – С. 79.

for the implementation of any neue Kombinationen connection is required, the combination, the coordination of individual factors, not always, or rather even not always located in the possession of a businessman, acting in their subject, whether public, public interest , which also stimulated by the global economic cooperation.

As part of the global economy lasting processes, but rather “the direction and degree of change in national economic life of the set of elements compared to the previous point”[28]28
  Кондратьев Н.Д. Большие циклы конъюнктуры и теория предвидения. – М.: ЗАО «Издательство «Экономика». 2002. – С. 33.

, called the market conditions are “business processes” global and global crises points and starting end of the previous economic cycle.

To fully participate in this “game” called the international economic cooperation, however, as to begin a local business from the subject required his personal attachment to its nature depends on its role and the remuneration for their participation. The ultimate party “game”, the consumer receives the rent as the excess of demand over the prevailing scale of the classical market, basically this is a false social value lost during the formation of the market and the market value of the accumulated savings in the form of money, an extra element to achieve the equivalent exchange[29]29
  Мещеров В.А. Действительная и ложная социальная стоимость – исходные формы образования рыночной стоимости // Экономический вестник Ростовского государственного университета. – 2006. – Том 4. – № 1. – С. 97.


A simple model implementation neue Kombinationen, at a minimum requires:

– material resources;

– administrative resources;

– financial resources;

– innovative resources.

Accordingly, the actors and their remuneration are as follows:

The owner – rent;

The worker – wage;

The capitalist – the percentage;

The entrepreneur – a profit.

“It is easier to obtain than to keep”, to maintain “stability zones” and the established order of the mechanism established by the provision of Art. 57[30]30
  Конституция Российской Федерации (ред. 30.12.2008) // Российская газета. – 2009. – № 7. («Каждый обязан платить законно установленные налоги и сборы. Законы, устанавливающие новые налоги или ухудшающие положение налогоплательщиков, обратной силы не имеют»).

of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Entrepreneur as a reward for his activity and the idea of business expects to receive income, the worker for his labor a guaranteed wage, the capitalist expects a capital gain, and the government imposes taxes and fees on its territory owners and users, whether natural, or man-made objects[31]31
  Под естественными и искусственными объектами понимаются, например, недра, леса, дороги, сложившиеся общественные отношения.


The nature of international economic cooperation is multifaceted. To describe its essence, the inner essence is to maintain world stability, permanence, the protection of existing values, the external entity is a reflection of the actual needs of stake holders to evaluate and order fulfillment.

Commitment generated by the commission of any act of the participants of this relationship remains “a feeling of incompleteness”, in the science of psychology there is a “Zeigarnik effect” whereby indeed interrupted, “unerledigter Handlunge”[32]32
  Zeigarnik Bluma. Das Behalten erledigter und unerledigter Handlungen // Psychologischen Institut der Universitait Berlin. – 1927. – 85 p.

is a strong position in the subject's memory rather than acts of completed actions. With regard to institutional and public entities believe it is undeniable accounting and provide periodic reporting on performance results.

In terms of institutional organization relationships in terms of turnover of public goods, the basis of civil rights are the property relations carried out in three areas: innovation, production, commercial, and financial[33]33
  Мозолин В.П., Рябов А.А. О трех сферах имущественных отношений, регулируемых гражданским законодательством // Законодательство. – 2009. – № 6. – С. 24.


So, how do at this stage of development is organized pursuant to mutual financial obligations within the framework of international economic cooperation.

Fundamental principles of this system are the subjects, which represent the private, institutional and public education sovereigns.

Individuals – are physical persons, residents in the attitude of one or more of the state, and foreign nationals (non-residents) in relation to other.

Institutional Education – an association created to carry out joint activities and to achieve certain goals in the composition, which is composed of different reasons individuals, institutional, educational, public sovereigns.

A public entity – the state, public association with all the attributes to separate sovereign territory, the presence of which, in effect, and distinguishes it from modern institutional structures already so similar to the state, but it is located in one of the jurisdictions.

Operators, agents are specialized institutional education, acting in accordance with the laws of the jurisdiction and the presence of registration. The activities carried out under a special permit, license of the Central Bank of the sovereign public, which gives them the right to perform certain banking transactions in accordance with standard operating procedures, which registered the order of their conduct.

Under Part 2[34]34
  Конституция Российской Федерации (в ред. 30.12.2008) // Российская газета. – 2009. – № 7. («Защита и обеспечение устойчивости рубля – основная функция Центрального банка Российской Федерации, которую он осуществляет независимо от других органов государственной власти»).

of Art. 75 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, as a significant public entity accounting relations, established by the Central Bank of Russia, so it is not “a natural product of banking development”[35]35
  Smith Vera C. The Rationale of Central Banking and the Free Banking Alternative. – Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1990. – P. 102.

. Created by the will of the state and burdened with the primary function of protecting and sustaining the national currency. Detail its legal status is defined by the Federal Law “On Central Bank of Russian Federation (Bank of Russia)” № 86-FL[36]36
  Федеральным законом «О Центральном банке Российской Федерации (Банке России)» от 10.07.2002. № 86-ФЗ (в ред. от 21.11.2011) // Российская газета. – 2002. – № 127.


In this world everything has its price, the price is set in the currency of a State, between actors in international economic cooperation is most often recorded in the contract price in the currency EURO or USD, in view of current practice. And she has developed through standard SDR, which is practically obsolete and is used by inertia, a multi-system formation is projected to include it as the Yen and possibly the Chinese Yuan, ruble considered as a candidate for this role, it is premature[37]37
  Красавина Л.Н. Российский рубль как мировая валюта: стратегический вызов инновационного развития России // ДЕНЬГИ И КРЕДИТ. – 2008. – № 5. – C. 18.


However, examining the individual operations, as a conclusion that it depends on the interests and understandings of the parties.

The legal basis for using the Russian ruble in international transactions is the Federal Law “On Currency Regulation and Currency Control” № 173-FL[38]38
  Федеральный закон «О валютном регулировании и валютном контроле» от 10.12.2003 № 173-ФЗ (в ред. от 21.11.2011) // Российская газета. – 2003. – № 253.


Even in the first edition of the law (October 1992) was declared that the foreign exchange operations with the Russian ruble current account balance of payments are made without any restrictions. This is possible already at the first stage of market reforms in Russia to ensure the growth of liquidity in the currency market of the Russian Federation and prevent the use of ruble in payments for foreign trade, primarily with the CIS countries. On June 1, 1996 pursuant to Decree of the President of Russia Russian Federation acceded to Article VIII of the Statute of the International Monetary Fund, which meant that the assumption of international obligations in support of the Russian currency convertibility on current account[39]39
  Потемкин А.И. Об усилении российского рубля в международных расчетах // ДЕНЬГИ И КРЕДИТ. – 2010. – № 8. – C. 3.


Based on these norms Russian commercial banks have the right to open correspondent accounts “Loro” in rubles for foreign banks with the ability to enroll in them proceeds from the sale of goods and services in Russia in favor of foreign companies – participants of foreign trade operations.

The currency, the money there and turned into cash and cashless. With regard to the activities of institutional actors have set limits, particularly in the Russian Federation has the following positions. “Payments in cash in the Russian Federation between entities and between legal person and a citizen engaged in entrepreneurial activities without forming a legal entity (hereinafter – the individual entrepreneur), between individual entrepreneurs associated with their business activities under one contract signed between these parties may be in an amount not exceeding 100 thousand rubles”[40]40
  Указание ЦБ РФ от 20.06.2007 № 1843-У (в ред. от 28.04.2008) «О предельном размере расчетов наличными деньгами и расходовании наличных денег, поступивших в кассу юридического лица или кассу индивидуального предпринимателя» // Вестник Банка России. – 2007.– № 39.

. Regarding the relations prevailing in the area of movement of goods across the customs border of the State of a reservation. “Customs fees paid in cash in accordance with Art. 331 of the Customs Code of the Russian Federation shall be exercised in accordance with Russian law, and not in accordance with the agreement concluded between certain parties. In this regard, when making these payments in cash rules Instructions № 1843-I does not apply[41]41
  Официальное разъяснение ЦБ РФ от 28.09.2009 № 34-ОР «О применении отдельных положений Указания Банка России от 20.06.2007 № 1843-У «О предельном размере расчетов наличными деньгами и расходовании наличных денег, поступивших в кассу юридического лица или кассу индивидуального предпринимателя» Вестник Банка России. – 2009. – № 8.

”. This clause was the basis for creating a specialized banking product “custom maps”, “maps of foreign economic activity” referred to in different ways by individual lending institutions and[42]42

, indeed, is a standardized (template) means of payment of customs payments on treasury bills of the Russian Federation.

Most of the complexity of the relationship are dispositive, folding, when equal entities shall cooperate on a voluntary mutual benefit, they are in the regulatory framework established by the ability to negotiate, to dialogue and reach a balanced conclusion as a result of negotiations.

So, consider the following situation. There is a subject which has the ability to provide goods or services, and the subject in need of this product or service, they know about each other, but still were in direct interaction and, consequently, the reputation of each other can only bring “outside help”.

Risks in collaboration missing, as Homer wrote “dangerous maneuvering between rocks”[43]43
  Бланк И.А. Управление финансовыми рисками. – К.: Ника-Центр. 2005. – С. 10.

is present on this side and on the other hand, reached an agreement on price, product, date, it remains to solve the issue of making payments, how to organize calculations for specificity has led to what we have deal with the goods.

Options to address the issue:

– due to the fact that the subject goods has wished to implement it, and found a potential buyer one of the most simple solution is to supply the goods and pay the agreed price by bank transfer to the buyer's account to the seller. With such an arrangement at once manifested payment risk, for various reasons, the same output will only further costly legal collection formed the debt;

– if the volume of supplies divided into parties and payments, respectively, and divided into tranches, we can carry out periodic monitoring of the implementation of mutual commitments and control each other spending estimates in the form of an open account. The buyer receives the shipment after receiving the proceeds from its sale, or receipt of funds from the use of the goods in neue Kombinationen takes payment and so on until the execution of mutual agreement in full;

– the concept of professional, expert testifies to the possession of the subject of theoretical knowledge and practical skills, that is, he goes in a certain area. In economic relations, the seller arranges for its own convenience, automation of the sales process “fork intermediaries” which communicates with the outside world and it is, except for access to a significant flow of external agents to myself. Because a network of dealers is selling goods to buyers. In this scheme of cooperation buyer may cast doubt on whether the goods from the seller and its insurance, risk minimization, may insist on payments in the form of a documentary collection, that is, the seller will carry the shipment of goods from the warehouse, to delivery to the conditioned space, and receive payment for goods in based on this fact confirming documents. Significant risk of the seller under this assumption is that the buyer may refuse to purchase.

The solution to minimize this risk, the author's opinion, may be costing and losses from the performance of obligations of the seller to the buyer. The buyer would have brought as a deposit (Art. 380, 381 of the Civil Code)[44]44
  «Гражданский кодекс Российской Федерации (часть первая)» от 30.11.1994 № 54-ФЗ (в ред. от 30.11.2011) // Российская газета. – 1994. – № 238-239.

. Thus the buyer would affirm its intention to purchase goods and to “insure” against improper performance of an obligation to deliver the goods by the seller;

– if confidence in the uniqueness of its product and doubts about the solvency of the buyer, the seller is willing to provide warranty receipt of payment for goods and insisting on payment in the form of a letter of credit, so the buyer or their own, or borrowed money used to open letters of credit, what makes sure the seller and ships the goods, due to the Credit provides a package of documents to the bank and get cash, goods and the buyer.

Credit institutions (banks) involved in the calculations as operators (agents) are professional intermediaries in monetary engaged in banking operations, the remuneration for the performance of which is one of the articles of their income as “burdening the activity of a person obliges him to compensate for time spent and strength”[45]45
  Камзин Н.Л. Распыление стоимости предмета залога среди аффилированных кредитной организации структур // Вестник Самарского государственного экономического университета. – 2010. – № 5 (67). – С. 43.


To increase their competitiveness and attractiveness, credit institutions form a network of branches and representative offices, is one of the options for resolving the issue. Another is the result of the expression “do not have a hundred rubles, and a hundred friends” through the establishment of correspondent relations and opening of accounts Loro and Nostro lenders time keeping remains at the required volumes, can meet the customer need to transfer funds within the framework of international economic cooperation in light of its of interest. However, one should consider the risks of interbank loans, the level of which is usually lower than on loans to customers[46]46
  Королев О.Г. Организация управленческого учета в коммерческом банке. – М.: Экономические науки. – 2006. – С. 103.


For the calculation of commercial banks – one of the main areas of activity[47]47
  Лаврушина О.И. Банковское дело. – М.: КНОРУС. 2009. – С. 132.

. Development of International Settlements is the ratio of static models taken from the overall dynamics of the use of tools and execution of financial obligations in the framework of international economic cooperation.

Payment method is a method of performance, and its choice depends on several factors caused, first of all the aspirations of the parties and their level of interaction. In mathematical science is the concept of “+” infinity and “-“ infinity, which are impossible to achieve the aspiration of a point. In organizing the settlement of relations among the parties such aspirations. At the same psychology of their actions is as follows.

The motive for the entry into the relationship and the cause of their activity is originated and unmet need. One side needs to be in the product or service, and another, being able to provide a service or product having wished to implement their own capacity for adequate compensation, and preferably in the form of “silver, which goes from the merchants”[48]48
  Библия. Первая книга Моисеева. Бытие. SGP. Box 516. – Chicago. IL 60690-0516 USA. 1990. – С. 22.

accounting currency. Although depending on the arrangements and the needs of the parties in practice meets the set of combinations of forms of payment. However, the essence remains the same one of the parties expects the execution of financial obligations, and agrees to comply with it is different with the appropriate correspondence.

Credit institutions which are the operator’s money attract deposits and open accounts in which funds are placed individuals and entities. In this case the client's order imperative for the credit institution. As a form of customer orders is entitled to require the issuance of money in cash, or transfer an amount to another account, the account of another person in another credit institution. Thus, there will be transfer of money orders a person to the account holder and therefore, it would oblige him either to this amount, or will meet financial commitments in a given volume.

Cashless payments are made through lending institutions (branches) or the central banks of the accounts opened under the contract of bank account or a correspondent account contract (sub account).

Payment transactions to transfer money through credit institutions (branches) can be implemented using:

– correspondent accounts (subaccounts) opened at the Central Bank;

– correspondent accounts opened in other credit institutions;

– accounts of settlement participants that are open to non-bank credit organizations;

– accounts inter branch settlements open within the same credit institution.

Write-off of funds from the account shall be ordered by the owner or without an order of the account holder in cases prescribed by law or contract between the bank and the client.

Write-off of funds from the account on the basis of settlement documents, within available funds in the account. The order of registration, reception, processing of electronic payment instruments and payment transactions of their use is governed by separate regulations and concluded between the Central Bank of the State or credit institutions and their customer’s treaties governing the exchange of electronic documents with information security.

If insufficient funds in the account to meet all the requirements presented to him by debit as they arrive in the order established by law.

Restriction of the rights of the account holder to dispose of the on cash is not allowed, with certain exceptions.

As members of the calculations are considered payers and recipients of funds (the claimant), as well as serving their banks and correspondent banks. Modern bank is a competitive bank with a wide and flexible assortment not only of bank but other financial services adapted to the needs of different groups of clients[49]49
  Maslov S.V. Modern tendency of bank system development in Russia // Аудит и финансовый анализ. – 2008. – № 4. – С. 3. (Современный банк – это крупный конкурентоспособный банк с широким и гибким ассортиментом не только банковских, но и других финансовых услуг, приспособленных к потребностям различных групп клиентов).

, but banks do not intervene in contractual agreements yet, but only carry out the mandatory monitoring.

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