English Grammar for University Students. Part 4
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Учебное пособие разработано на компетентностно-модульной основе с интеграцией существующих программ подготовки бакалавра на основе действующего Государственного образовательного стандарта высшего профессионального образования и документа «Общеевропейские компетенции владения иностранным языком: изучение, обучение, оценка».
Компетентностный подход в языковом образовании опирается на коммуникативный и личностно-ориентированный подходы. Конечным результатом образовательного процесса в рамках компетентностного подхода является развитие иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции студента и всех входящих в нее субкомпетенций, модуль является средством организации учебного процесса. Это позволяет сделать процесс обучения индивидуализированным, доступным и ясным.
Материал пособия отражает темы, изучаемые в курсе практической грамматики английского языка в III–IV семестрах бакалавриата по направлению Лингвистика. Изучение практической грамматики в III–IV семестрах охватывает продвинутый этап развития иноязычной коммуникативной компетентности, соотносящийся с уровнем В2 «Общеевропейских компетенций…». На этом этапе формируются основные навыки, обеспечивающие языковую и коммуникативную подготовку лингвиста.
К концу четвертого семестра обучения на продвинутом уровне студент должен:
– грамотно употреблять в устной и письменной речи определенное количество стандартных конструкций, связанных с более или менее предсказуемыми ситуациями;
– уметь различать стилистические и прагматические особенности ситуации и производить выбор изученной грамматической структуры;
– уметь передать оттенки значения разными синонимичными грамматическими средствами;
– уметь анализировать функциональные особенности каждой грамматической структуры и давать правильный перевод с/на русский язык;
– переводить с русского языка на английский и с английского на русский сложные ситуации, содержащие несколько коммуникативных линий в рамках изученной тематики, а также тексты, принадлежащие к различным сферам деятельности: общественно-политической, деловой, спортивной, культурной, образовательной, и т. д.;
– спонтанно переводить с русского языка на английский ситуации, содержащие пройденный лексический и грамматический материал [Формирование иноязычной коммуникативной компетентности лингвиста-переводчика на основе проектов ФГОС ВПО третьего поколения и общеевропейских стандартов языкового образования, 2010].
Коммуникативная компетенция после овладения продвинутым уровнем включает в себя определенный набор знаний, умений и навыков.
– понятийного аппарата практической грамматики;
– основных грамматических явлений и закономерностей функционирования изучаемого языка;
– особенностей официального, нейтрального и неофициального регистров общения.
– проводить сравнительно-сопоставительный анализ лингвистического материала;
– употреблять определённые грамматические структуры в зависимости от ситуации общения и цели высказывания;
– владеть основными способами выражения коммуникативной и структурной связи между композиционными элементами текста;
– дифференцировать модели и структуры, характерные для разных стилей языка, устной и письменной речи;
– осуществлять сопоставительный анализ языка источника и языка-перевода, учитывать расхождения в грамматическом аспекте;
– создавать развернутые логично построенные тексты.
– грамотно использовать устную и письменную речь;
– использовать дискурсивные способы реализации коммуникативных целей высказывания;
– определять значение и функции языковых явлений в тексте;
– анализировать простое предложение в составе оригинальных текстов, выявлять типы связи;
– переводить с русского на английский и с английского на русский язык предложения и тексты, содержащие пройденный грамматический материал.
Module 1.The infinitive
NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
Verb forms fall into two classes: finites and non-finites, the latter are also called verbals, verbids. There are four non-finite forms of the verb in the English language: the Infinitive, the Present Participle (Participle I), the Past Participle (Participle II), and the Gerund.
Non-finite forms of the verb have double nature, they possess the characteristics of the verb together with the characteristics of other parts of speech. They have some verbal categories: voice, aspect, and temporal correlation; but they lack the categories of person, number, mood, and tense [Кобрина,Корнеева, 2009].
The verbal nature of non-finite forms is also revealed in combinability. Similar to finite verbs they may take direct, indirect, and prepositional objects, adverbial modifiers, and subordinate clauses.
Verbals cannot be a predicate in the sentence but they can be used as part of a compound predicate. They may form predicative constructions which consist of two elements: a noun or a pronoun and a verbal. They are in predicative relation that resembles the relation of the subject and the predicate.
I would like you to play with the child.
I saw him cross the street.
Father had his car repaired yesterday.
The non-verbal nature of non-finites may be seen in their syntactical functions. The Infinitive and the Gerund perform the syntactical functions of subject, object and predicative that are similar to the syntactical functions of the noun. Participle I may function as part of a compound nominal predicate (predicative), attribute, and adverbial modifier; Participle II may function as attribute and predicative.
The Infinitive is the form of the verb which expresses a process in general, and is known as the initial form of the verb.
The Infinitive may be used with the particle to. Sometimes the particle is separated from the Infinitive by other words, e.g. an adverb (split Infinitive).
This separation is usually used for the purpose of emphasis.
You have to really watch him.
Historically, the Infinitive is a verbal noun. That is why it combines the features of the verb with those of the noun.
The verbal features of the Infinitive are manifested in its morphological and syntactical characteristics.
1. It possesses the grammatical categories of voice, aspect and temporal correlation.
It was too dark to read the map and we took the wrong turning.
You’re not supposed to be reading this.
Fleming, Tolkien and CS Lewis are the authors that British people most claim – falsely – to have read.
This is a book to be read by everybody taking this course!
Why do some new messages appear to have been read when I haven’t opened them yet?
She was seen to have been reading the new book in the garden.
2. The Infinitive possesses the verb combinability:
a) The Infinitive of transitive (переходные) verbs takes a direct object.
Alex may send (transitive verb) a postcard (direct object) from Argentina.
3. The Infinitive can be modified by adverbials.
She agreed to leave the room quickly and quietly.
The nominal character of the Infinitive is manifested in its syntactical functions.
To drive fast in such weather is pretty dangerous (subject).
Their duty will be to look after the children (predicative).
I asked her to explain everything (object).
I have no desire to go there (attribute).
The grammatical categories of the infinitive
The Infinitive possesses verbal categories: temporal correlation, aspect, and voice (for transitive forms) (as shown in the table below) [Тивьяева, 2007].
FORMS OF THE INFINITIVE
As for temporal correlation, the forms of the Infinitive show whether the action is simultaneous to the action expressed by the finite verb, or prior to it.
1. The Non-Perfect (Indefinite, Simple) Infinitive denotes an action simultaneous with that of the finite verb.
Jeremy likes to write letters.
Jeremy liked to write letters.
Jeremy will like to write letters.
2. The Continuous Infinitive expresses an action in progress or happening over a period of time and simultaneous with that of the finite verb. The Continuous Infinitive is both a temporal and aspect form, becauseit expresses how an action, denoted by the Infinitive, extends over time.
You must be joking.
I happened to be waiting for the bus when the accident happened.
3. The Perfect Infinitive denotes an action prior to that of the finite verb.
Lucy was known to have left the day before.
I am happy to have finished school.
If you had run faster you would have won the race.
4. The Perfect Continuous Infinitive denotes an action in progress or happening over a period of time which is prior to that of the finite verb. The Perfect Continuous Infinitive is both a temporal and aspect form,because it expresses how an action, denoted by the Infinitive, extends over time.
I’m glad to have been living in Barcelona for the last ten years.
But for the fog the travellers would have been wandering in the forest for a long time.
The Infinitive of transitive verbs possesses voice distinctions and has the forms of the Active and Passive Voice.
Please remember to bring a mat and a towel with you to the next aerobics class (Indefinite Active).
He happened to be brought up in a very rich family (Indefinite Passive). President Trump is very proud to have brought the subject of illegal immigration back into the discussion (Perfect Active).
Tomatoes are known to have been brought to Europe in the XVIth century (Perfect Passive).
The active form of the Infinitive shows that the subject of the sentence, the person or thing characterised by the Infinitive, or the person or thing expressed in the Infinitive predicative construction is the doer of the action denoted by the Infinitive.
The passive form of the Infinitive shows that the subject of the sentence, the person or thing characterized by the Infinitive, or the person or thing expressed in the Infinitive predicative construction is affected by the action denoted by the Infinitive [Шрамко, Степанова, Кожемяка, 2008].
The use of the infinitive without the particle to (the bare infinitive)
The Infinitive is used without the particle to in the following cases:
1. After auxiliary verbs.
Do you like music?
Seldom do we witness such catastrophes.
Does anyone know where I left my diary?
2. After modal verbs (except ought to) and modal expressions had better, would rather, would sooner.
You must use some verbs more than once.
We’d better not borrow Diane’s books without asking her.
She’d sooner die than give up.
3. After verbs of sense perception (see, notice, watch, observe, hear, feel, smell, etc.) as a part of the Objective Infinitive Construction.
I watched him arrive.
We noticed her run away from the building.
Note, that in passive sentences with these verbs a to-Infinitive is used.
He was watched to arrive.
He was noticed to run away from the house.
4. After verbs of inducement (let, make, have) as a part of the Objective Infinitive Construction.
I made Peter wait outside.
John lets the dog sleep on the sofa.
But! Peter was made to wait outside.
5. After phrases with but (cannot but, anything but, nothing but).
I could not but congratulate him.
She can do everything but cook.
6. In why-sentences, both affirmative and negative, where it expresses a suggestion.
Why not take advantage of the situation?
Why go there so late?
Why make so much noise?
7. In cases when two Infinitives are joined by ‘and’ or ‘or’, bare Infinitive can be used.
I want to go out and have fun and relax.
Syntactical functions of the infinitive
The Infinitive may be used in a number of syntactical functions in which it may stand alone, form an Infinitive phrase or a predicative construction.
Non-perfect active forms are more widely used in this function.
To speak foreign languages well is an advantage.
To have got the job in the face of such stiff competition was a great achievement.
The subject expressed by the Infinitive may be introduced by the so-called introductory it, which stands at the beginning of the sentence.
It is sometimes difficult to accept the truth.
It may be advisable to consult a specialist.
The Infinitive is a part of a complex subject as a part of the Subjective Infinitive Construction.
He was seen toenter the room.
1. Part of the predicate
The Infinitive is used in predicates of several types, both nominal and verbal.
a) Predicative (part of a compound nominal predicate)
My dream is to travel around the world.
Sometimes doing the right thing is to do nothing at all.
b) Secondary predicative (part of a predicative)
She is easy to deal with.
He is nice to talk to.
The house is comfortable to live in.
In this function the action expressed by the Infinitive is aimed at the subject.
c) Part of a compound verbal predicate
The Infinitive is used in a compound verbal modal predicate after modal verbs, modal expressions, and verbs with modal meaning.
Do you really have to leave so early?
I am willing to go to the theatre with you.
Jane likes to fish.
The Infinitive serves as a part of a compound verbal aspect predicate after verbs denoting beginning, continuation, repetition or cessation of the action. These verbs are to begin, to come, to start, to continue, to go on, etc.
Schoolchildren begin to study at half past eight.
We used to go swimming every evening when in Nice.
At the next lesson the teacher went on to explain the functions of the Infinitive.
The above mentioned verbs can also be used with a Gerund, although with a certain difference in meaning.
For example, the verb to stop + Gerund means to finish an action, to interrupt, as for to stop + Infinitive, it means to make a pause in order to do something. That is why the Infinitive after the verb to stop is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of purpose.
He stopped smoking for health reasons.
He stopped to rest for a few minutes
Go on + Gerund means to continue with the action. Go on + Infinitive means to do the next action, or change the activity.
He went on speaking for two hours.
After her early teaching career she went on to become a doctor.
Most commonly used verbs followed by the Infinitive are the following: afford, agree, aim, appear, arrange, bother, care, claim, consent, decide, demand, determine, fail, guarantee, hesitate, hope, learn, manage, offer, prepare, pretend, proceed, promise, propose, refuse, resolve, seek, strive, swear, threaten, trouble, undertake, volunteer, vow.
The Infinitive may also be used as an object after an adjective. The most commonly occurring of them are: amazed, delighted, lucky, relieved, afraid, disappointed, sad, anxious, determined, shocked, ashamed, eager, pleased, astonished, fortunate, prepared, surprised, careful, glad, proud, sorry, certain, happy, ready, upset, content, hesitant, reluctant, willing, pleased, interested, etc.
Note: Sometimes the introductory object it is used.
He found it difficult to spot her in the crowd.
The Infinitive in this function may modify nouns, substantivized adjectives, pronouns, numerals.
This is much to ask.
England, once «the workshop of the world», was the first to become a highly developed industrial country.
Hope is the last to die.
When we go out, he’s always the one to pay.
5. Adverbial modifier
The Infinitive can be used as an adverbial modifier of purpose, subsequent events, consequence, attendant circumstances, comparison, condition, exception, time, cause, or motivation [Кобрина, Корнеева, 2009].
Adverbial modifier of purpose. Indefinite forms of the Infinitive (both active and passive) are used in this function. The Infinitive may be preceded by the conjunction in order, so as or by limiting particle (just, only):
We all need stress in order to achieve and do our best work.
They never parked the big van in front of the house so as not to upset the neighbours.
Adverbial modifier of subsequent events or attendant circumstances. In this function the Infinitive denotes an action that follows the one denoted by the predicate. The Infinitive may be preceded by the particles only, merely, simply [Н. А. Кобрина, Е. А. Корнеева и др., 2009].
He left his home town, never to come back.
I tore open the box, only to discover that some of the parts were missing. I went to see the doctor, only to find him absent.
Adverbial modifier of result. In this function the Infinitive is used after adjectives and adverbs modified by too; enough; so …. as, and nouns modified by such.… as.
I was too afraid to try bungee jumping.
No man is clever enough to know all the evil he does.
Would you be so kind as to send to me those documents?
Trade policy needed to be organized in such a way as to contribute to sustainable economic development.
Adverbial modifier of comparison or manner. In this function the Infinitive is introduced by the conjunctions as if, as though or than.
The cat looked up at me as if to say “I’m hungry.”
He nodded his head slowly as though to agree with everything she said.
He knows better than to marry her.
Adverbial modifier of condition denotes an action which pre-conditions the action expressed by the predicate. In this function the Infinitive is used but seldom.
To look at his works you would think that you have already seen them somewhere.
If to speak about teens, they stand somewhere between childhood and adulthood.
The Infinitive used as parenthesis is usually part of a collocation, as in: to begin with, to be (quite) frank, to be sure, to make matters worse, to put it mildly, to say the least, to tell the truth, needless to say, strange to say, so to speak, to make a long story short, to crown all, to make matters worse, to be more precise, to say nothing of , etc.
When they had an accident, they were upset, to say the least.
John helps me with my taxes.He’s my accountant, so to speak.
Predicative constructions with the infinitive
The Infinitive is used in three types of predicative constructions:
The Objective with the Infinitive Construction.
The Subjective with thе Infinitive Construction.
The For-to-Infinitive Construction.
In all these constructions the Infinitive denotes an action ascribed to a noun or a pronoun. Due to their semantics and because of the attached position the nominal and the verbal elements are understood as forming a complex with subject-predicate relationship [Кобрина, Корнеева и др., 2009].
I saw him cross the street.
It is for him to decide.
He appeared to be a good doctor.
The objective infinitive construction
The Objective Infinitive Construction is a construction in which the Infinitive (usually the Infinitive phrase) is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case.
The Objective Infinitive Construction is used as a complex object in the following cases:
1. After verbs of sense perception (to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to feel, to observe, to notice and some others). Only Indefinite Infinitive without the particle ‘to’ is used in this case.
We did not see her enter the room.
They watched me cross the street.
Note: If the verb to see or to notice is used with the meaning to understand, or the verb to hear with the meaning to learn, the Objective Infinitive Construction cannot be used. Here only subordinate object clause is possible.
I saw that they had nothing to say to me (Я понял, что…).
I hear your brother has returned from vacation (Я слышал, что…).
2. After verbs of mental activity(to know, to think, to believe, to consider, to suppose, to expect, to understand, to find and some others).
I expect the goods to be loaded immediately
He considers this question (to be) of great importance.
We found the breakfast she had cooked to taste very good.
3. After verbs denoting feelings and emotion (to like, to dislike, to love, to hate, and some others).
I’d like you to try this dish.
I hate him to talk in this way.
4. After verbs denoting wish and intention (to want, to wish, to desire, to intend, to mean and some others).
I wish you to be happy and rich.
I don’t want him to be reprimanded.
5. After verbs denoting declaring (to announce, declare, to pronounce).
I declare you to be man and wife.
The journalists reported the second death to happen due to the hurricane.
6. After verbs denoting compulsion (to have, to make, to get, to order) of which the first two take a bare Infinitive.
A salesperson got me to spend much more money on my suits that I wanted to
What made him change his mind?
I have the gardener take care of everything.
7. After verbs denoting order and permission (to allow, to order)
He ordered the keys to be taken from the prisoner.
The head master didn’t allow the telephones to be brought to school.
8. After certain verbs requiring a prepositional object (to count (up) on, to rely (up) on).
I rely on him to support me.
I’m counting on you to tell me everything.
9. After the verb to let without the particle ‘to’
Just let them try it!
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