Методологические проблемы цивилистических исследований. Сборник научных статей. Ежегодник. Выпуск 2. 2017
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The principal purpose of the organizers and the partners of the Perm readings, and of the publishers of this book – is intensifying the interest for the civil methodological problematics, especially on the part of the young researchers and postgraduates seeking for the scientific degrees. We totally share the opinion that “a person not armoured methodologically, proceeds by trial and error”1818
R. Jhering called such an observation the “law of economy” and saw “one of the life laws of any jurisprudence” in it: “The jurisprudence that has not understood this law, i.e. the jurisprudence that is not capable of economic treatment of the material, will be pressed with the growing mass of the latter and will die of its own richness”1919
Any science needs self-reflection, the development of knowledge about itself. The continuation of the investigation performed in the Soviet period by the O.S. Ioffe on the logics of the civil law thinking2020
Every meaningful, productive research of the legal phenomena, including those of the civil law character, should start with establishing the methodological principles and frames of work.That is why, the researches should first of all be taught to use different methods of cognition and be equipped with the methodological tools.
The question about what the scientific methodology is, is a complicated question not only for the civilians but also for the methodologists of the science, for the philosophers and the theorists of the law. But the general scientific complexity of the problem should not lead to avoiding it in the specific sciences.
At present, the situation is created in the sphere of the civil law researches, when the methodology, in a manner of speaking, “takes a revenge” over the civil science: the full ignoring of the methodological aspects of the scientific research, the lack of understanding of the essence and the meaning of the methodology, the failure to use the system of the general and the specific scientific cognition methods leads to the diluting the very core of the science, to the intensive multiplication of the scientific “plankton”, to the research of the civil “chimeras” instead of the really existing problems. N.A. Vlasenko rightly characterized the state of the modern scientific thought as the “circulation of the muddy water”2121
The methodology of the science is traditionally understood as a complex of the scientific cognition methods. Nevertheless, as known, the entire is always bigger than a simple set of the components: a kit for making a plane – is not yet a plane itself.
The cognition methods separately are a specific part of the civil methodology, and the researcher should be familiar with each of them.
To begin with, the the excellence of a legal theorist is defined by his understanding of the special, specific (general legal) methods of cognition and his ability to use them. For example, the usage of the historical legal method – is not the interpretation of the contents of the normative acts, that regulated in the past the researched phenomenon, and not the retrospective of the scientists’ opinions about it. Similarly, the use of the comparative legal method is not the re-writing the articles, covering the researched phenomenon, from the legislations of the foreign countries. Such application of the mentioned research method is very often met in the civil scientific works.
It is a pity that the civil scientists seldom use the methods of the nonjuridical sciences (economy, sociology, cultural studies, psychology, mathematics), which significantly enlarge the opportunities of the research. An especially promising and in some researches – a necessary method is the economic analysis and the sociological analysis of the civil law concerning how the civil legal phenomenon under study influences the economics and the society and vice versa. For example, if the recently implemented institution of the personal bankruptcy is needed in the specific economic relations, if it has led to the expected economical result, i.e. the significant reduction of debt to the creditors? Using the sociological methods, one can discover how the addressees of this institution treat it: if the risk of bankruptcy is a real factor inducing to pay the debt, or if it, on the contrary, is a happy opportunity to get rid of the creditors’ claims? In the latter case, the eficiency of the civil legal regulation of the personal bankruptcy will be extremely low, in the worst case scenario – the regulation will be not needed, and this cannot be ignored by the researcher.
It is quite often that the civil works include the innovative proposals that require considerable financial resources which are totally not taken into attention by the researchers. For example, the thesis researches propose to develop the mechanisms of compensating the civil damage for the deceived participants of the co-funded construction project, for the crime victims and the victims of other offences, for consumers, for the investors of the bankrupt financial organizations, for the authors of illegally used creative works, and other persons at the expense of the national budget. The economic analysis2222
In some of the civil researches it will be relevant to use the methodological toolbox of the cultural and psychological sciences allowing to account for the corresponding special features of the society. For example, when using exceptionally the legal methodology, the juridical construction of the relations between the borrower and the microfinance organizations look practically “trouble-free”: the organization gives the citizen a definite amount of money for his immediate needs, although at high interest rates but with no deposit. The problems of this construction are revealed when this construction is transferred to the society with the known cultural and psychological features. The borrowers are usually people not only with low income but also having low general and legal culture, with low capacity for the legal reflection and self-regulation. They inadequately evaluate their possibilities, with all the resulting civil consequences and, it is a pity, with harsh criminal consequences. The ignoring of this factors devaluates the civil legal construction of “microloans” and leads to the justified blaming the lawyers for their failure to “study the life of the society and the state, the functioning of the law within the framework of their actual purpose in the life of people and the society”2323
Surely, none of the scientific researches can be made with no general scientific methods of cognition (analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction comparison, analogy etc.). Although, in opinion of B.I. Puginskiy, the mentioned means “are not the methods of getting the scientific knowledge but are the general logical rules of performing the intellectual operations”2424
In general, the relevant and effective application of the scientific cognition methods supposes the deep understanding of their nature, purpose, functions, rules and cases of use by the researcher.
In our opinion, the authors of the civil works, especially the authors of the theses, should describe the chosen methodology of the research at the level of the paragraph, chapter, section. The standard list of the research methods being repeated in every thesis, is not suficient for explaining the chosen methodology and the methods of cognition. It is necessary to describe distinctly and in detail, what method was used, the reason and the purpose for choosing it to get a definite scientific result.
However, the methodology of the science, including the civil science, has a common part, because the methodology as a specific organization of the scientific activity is in charge not only for the use of the necessary means and procedures of the scientific cognition but also for the correct definition of the object and the subject of the research, for its tasks and phases, for its results (scientific novelty)2525
The common part of the civil methodology also includes the question of the correspondence between the “theory of law” and the “civil law” sciences, resulting from the general question of correspondence between the science theory and methodology. The scientific theory performs all the methodological functions in all the sciences2626
Nevertheless, in modern civil researches we often see an extremely disrespectful attitude towards the existing theoretical legal results. The results of the civil researches, for example about the civil legal relations, about the civil legal juridical facts, about the civil legal liability, civil legal protection of the rights, civil rights and duties, are so “unique” and far from the theoretical legal concepts of these legal phenomena, that they cause only reasonable negative reaction of the legal theorists – from the deep bewilderment to the explainable indignation. Such a situation is a result either of the misunderstanding of the meaning of the theory of law for the sectoral sciences or of the general lack of knowledge on the contents, the structure and the essence of the scientific methodology itself.
Besides, it is important to differentiate between the fundamental and the applied civil researches. Introducing changes into the existing legislation and improving the court practice cannot be the purposes of the fundamental researches, although as a result the latter gain an implied practical meaning.
However, the question of the philosophical part of the civil methodology is deemed to be most complicated. The chosen methods of research and the results of the research to a large extent depend on the scientist’s world view and his law understanding.
For example, the normativism suggests the exceptional study of the civil legal norms that regulate the legal phenomenon. Despite the fact that the civil theses defendants very seldom indicate the normativism as the methodological basis of the work, it is more often that it is the basis of the work. Indicating the dialectics as the fundamental of such a research means that both the normativism and the dialectics are misunderstood, because the principal technique of the latter is not “applicable for studying the the aggregate of the legal norms”2929
Today, we observe the “grim cocktail” of the incompatible world-view ingredients in most diverse combinations: of the dialectics, metaphysics, idealism, materialism, realism, historicism, normativism, natural legal approach, sociological approach, phenomenological approach, communicative and other approaches to understanding the civil phenomena.
Surely, such a situation is primarily caused by the general shift in the Russian science from the methodological monism to pluralism. We are not against the philosophical methodological pluralism but the pluralism with dialectical necessity has two sides and holds internal contradiction, accurately noticed by O.V. Martyshkin: “The pluralism is good when it rests on solid cultural traditions and is coupled with a serious battle of ideas, with polemics, impatience for incompetence and pseudo science, craftsmanship, “self-expression” imposed by the will to become famous or by the deceptive ideas (scientific degrees, positions, honour). Under such conditions, the pluralism leads to improving the level of the scientific statement. Otherwise, the freedom of thought degenerates into the dissoluteness, whateverism and permissiveness, and this leads to decreasing the culture of the research”3131
Only harmonious, well-thought-out, objectively justified research methodology can withstand such a “dissoluteness, whateverism and permissiveness” in the theoretical cognition. With this, in accordance with the fair point of N.N. Tarasov, “the choice of the philosophical grounds and the methodology of the research – is the choice and the responsibility of the scientist”3232
In that context, the assistance in the development and solving the methodological problems of the civil science and the civil researches is deemed by the authors and the editors of the publication as the top-priority field of their scientific and scientific pedagogical work, that will be continued, in particular, within the framework of the Perm Reading on the Methodological Problems of the Civil Researches, held at the law department of the Perm State National Research University in cooperation with the Kazan Federal University, that have become annual. We invite Doctors of Juridical Sciences and doctoral candidates sensitive on the today’s condition of the methodological theme in the civil law, to participate.
We also hope for the continuation of the mutually beneficial cooperation with our permanent partner – the “Statut” publishing house. We express our appreciation and gratitude on behalf of all the team of the authors for every possible support of our scientific event and for the given opportunity to publish the scientific articles of the participants.
I. Статьи специально приглашенных докладчиков
О мировоззренческом аспекте методологии гражданского права
Введение: активно насаждаемый в последние годы методологический плюрализм привел к методологическому хаосу в цивилистических исследованиях. Особую опасность представляют попытки замены диалектического материализма на идеализм, в ходе которых поднимается вновь проблема соотношения бытия и сознания, базиса и надстройки. Цель: показать важность диалектико-материалистического подхода для цивилистических работ, особенно касающихся проблем права собственности. Методы: использовались методы формальной логики и диалектики. Результаты: цивилистическая методология должна учитывать российский опыт, национальные традиции и правовую идеологию, недопустимо переносить зарубежные конструкции в российское право без надлежащей адаптации. Исследователям важно учитывать, что гражданско-правовые отношения должны быть гармонизированы с экономическими, однако и те и другие отношения обладают самостоятельной сущностью и ценностью. Выводы: при исследовании гражданско-правовых проблем важен мировоззренческий аспект методологии. От типа правопонимания ученого зависят результаты его научной работы. Право и правоотношения являются самостоятельными предметами научной абстракции.
Ключевые слова: методология гражданского права; мировоззрение; диалектический материализм как цивилистическая методология; собственность; право собственности.
ABOUT THE WORLDVIEW ASPECT OF THE CIVIL LAW METHODOLOGY 3333