Нина Пусенкова.

Английский язык. Практический курс для решения бизнес-задач

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   В России после печального опыта советского Госплана, планировавшего все и вся, включая производство спичечных коробков и карандашей, на 10 лет вперед, корпорации, вероятно, рассчитывали прежде всего на «невидимую руку» рынка при принятии управленческих решений и оказались не готовы к выработке долгосрочных стратегий. Перегибы тотального планирования извратили саму сущность стратегического планирования, ориентированного на изучение вероятных трансформаций в предпочтениях клиентов, возможностей сокращения издержек производства, современных способов оптимизации управления.
   В то же время стратегия должна наряду с ориентированием компании на улучшение финансовых показателей способствовать росту ее цивилизованности в части качества продукции, социальных и экологических стандартов, репутации и т. д. Стоимость бренда составляет в западных странах немалую часть от капитализации компании. Несомненно, приветствуются инновации, обеспечивающие корпорации уникальный фирменный стиль, неповторимое лицо, эксклюзивность и комфорт для клиентов и инвесторов в ее ценные бумаги.
   При выходе на рынок важно грамотно и сфокусированно подать информацию о компании инвесторам. К примеру, НЛМК, готовящий в настоящее время IPO, справедливо говорит как об объективных факторах (технологически современное производство), так и об успехах менеджмента (достижения в части вертикальной интеграции, отсутствие покупок непрофильных активов (non-core assets) и т. д.) и о стратегических установках, прежде всего в части обеспечения полной независимости от поставок сырья в среднесрочной перспективе. Такой подход выглядит оправданным и логичным.
   «Газпром» апеллирует к инвесторам своими планами по географической диверсификации экспортных поставок (в том числе через строительство Северо-Европейского газопровода) и созданию полноценной энергетической компании, которая позволит снизить цикличность бизнеса и повысить его рентабельность. «Лукойлу», в свою очередь, близка идея глобальной компании (отсюда активизация зарубежной экспансии последнего времени), и не просто нефтяной, а нефтегазовой (отсюда серьезные инвестиции в газовые проекты).
   Интересна стратегия электроэнергетических компаний, особенно прошедших реструктуризацию, например «Мосэнерго». Акцент с реформирования смещается на замену устаревшего оборудования с целью повышения его экономичности в условиях роста цен на газ, бо€льшую степень ориентированности на клиента по мере подготовки к либерализации электроэнергетического рынка. Плюс ориентация на передовые стандарты управленческой отчетности, современные методы управления издержками и капитальными затратами.
   Таким образом, главное в стратегиях компании – их комплексность и гармоничность: производственные и технологические амбиции должны иметь финансовый фундамент, а смелые новации в отношении продуктового ряда опираться на взвешенные маркетинговые исследования. Отраслевые лидеры становятся и лидерами фондового рынка, двигателями его устойчивого поступательного развития.
   Источник: Сергей Суверов, начальник центра анализа рыночной конъюнктуры Газпромбанка, «Ведомости», 07.12.05 (сокращено)



   Read and translate the text and learn terms from the Essential Vocabulary.


   What is the difference between marketing and selling? My old VP of Marketing buddy said it well: «Selling is getting rid of something you’ve got.
Marketing is having something you can get rid of.» A successful marketing oriented company is not product driven. Its success comes because of its focus on customers and their needs and wants.


   A selling orientation is one, through which a company emphasizes its products with the main aim of maximizing sales.


   A marketing orientation begins by examining the needs of the prospective users of a product. Even the details of the product design are driven by paying particular attention to the needs and wishes of the customer. Profits will result from having satisfied customers.


   In a business plan, companies will generally make a «forecast» of sales revenue on a month-by-month basis for the next few years. How can a company say that in May of next year it will generate sales of $2.3 million from Product A? Is this a guess?
   If a company says it «plans» to achieve sales of $2.3 million, it is implied that there are specific activities that have been defined that will lead to this target. To this end, the distribution channels for the product must be defined. Pricing assumptions have to be tested and adjusted. Advertising budgets and schedules must be worked out. Most importantly, the resources required to achieve the desired sales level must be calculated. How many salespersons will be needed? What level of technical support is necessary?



   The 4 Ps of marketing are Product, Price, Place, and Promotion. The 4 Ps are your marketing «mix». You control the 4Ps. They are your «independent» variables. The dependent variable is sales volume. This is the output that you get by defining the inputs – i.e. the 4 Ps. How do you choose this mix? That is the challenge! These variables are all interdependent. The task is to set these variables in such a way so that sales will take place. You cannot «make» a customer pull out her credit card, but you can certainly help her in coming to a decision by setting the «right» price, the retail outlet, the level of advertising and even product attributes such as color or perceived quality. You control everything but the customer herself.
   In defining your marketing mix it is also necessary to take into account your competitor’s mix as well as your overall corporate objectives. The idea is to come up with a mix that will clearly differentiate your products from those of your competitors while considering your corporate goals. For example, the mission of your company may be to offer a high-end luxury product since your competitors are addressing the mass market and this is consistent with your company’s goal of owning the market for top-of-the-line products of this category.


   What is it that you are selling? A good marketing manager will be particularly interested in knowing what «need» it addresses? Engineers would think in terms of its functional specifications and marketing people would think more in terms of its features and benefits. Manufacturing people will be thinking about how to make it and along with the accounting group they will be wondering what it costs to make (or buy). Hopefully, they won’t be wondering and will defer instead to rigorous analysis.
   Denny Doyle, consultant and founder of Digital Equipment Canada, always told me that the product is what you trade for cash. In other words, your customers want your product and you want their cash and all you do in business is trade those two items.


   What is price? The answer may not be as obvious as one may think. Price is not just the sticker price or the price invoiced. It goes deeper. For example, what about terms? Can you have 30 days to pay for a purchase or as we often hear on radio commercials for household furniture, «nothing down, no interest, low monthly payments starting next year!»? A good example of clever pricing was Xerox’s decision to «loan» customers the Xerox 914 and to charge them only $.05 per copy.
   As a product moves through the distribution channels, e.g. from manufacturer to distributor to dealer to customer, there are prices set along the way. The manufacturer’s selling price to the distributor becomes the distributor’s cost. Obviously, it is important to understand pricing and margins along the distribution path. Ultimately, the price to the consumer must be competitive. Who sets this price? Does the manufacturer or the dealer have the final say? Can the manufacturer in any way control the price of his product when it hits the street? Most importantly, can the manufacturer make (or sub-contract) the product for a cost to him that allows him to meet his profit objectives given the retail price target?
   How do you price a very innovative, one-of-a-kind product? Are you pricing too low and leaving money on the table? Are you pricing yourself out of the market? Presently, there is strong demand for Harley-Davidson motorcycles and delivery times are running over six months. Since only the Harley company makes a Harley, should it raise prices and take advantage of the strong demand? If demand for your product is lagging, should you drop price – especially if the product life cycle has peaked?
   There are various pricing strategies. For example, markup pricing is the setting of a price based on one’s cost. This may be appropriate when reselling a product used in providing a service. For example, an auto mechanic may mark up her cost of auto parts by 50%. This may be a simple way for her to determine selling price and from her experience this is in line with what other mechanics are doing.
   Another pricing strategy is that of market «skimming». You start with fairly high prices (especially in the absence of competition) and you lower your prices over time as you start to keep up with the demand or as competition begins to move in.
   For so-called commodity products, a going-rate pricing approach is often followed. If you are selling gasoline to motorists, it would be very difficult to charge a price per liter which is noticeably different from that charged by gas stations nearby, unless you’re the only station on a 200 km stretch of desert highway.
   Currency is another important aspect for technology companies to consider. Because the markets for technology-based products are usually global, you should price your products in U.S. dollars. You might even consider pricing on an FOB (Free-on-Board) Destination basis. When I was selling video terminals in Germany in the 1970s, I priced in Deutschmarks, FOB Frankfurt. This meant that I was taking more risk with respect to currency fluctuations, freight and insurance charges, but by consolidating large volumes to Frankfurt, I was able to greatly reduce air freight expenses thereby offering a competitive price to my distributors.


   Placement of the product is crucial. There are often many channels, which a product can take in going from your shop to the customer. Defining a channel strategy is not simply an arbitrary matter. Bear in mind that all middlemen along the way are in partnership with you to sell something to the end-user. Therefore, your product and its other 3 Ps must be such that various resellers in your channel have their needs (e.g. margin objectives, volumes) met.
   There is also the question of control. When AES Data launched the world’s first word processor in the early 1970s, it signed up the Lanier company in the USA to handle U.S. sales. However, Lanier was selling the AES product under its own label, and when Lanier decided to switch to another supplier of word processors (as competition emerged), AES had little control over its U.S. customers. To gain a foothold in the U.S. market, it had to start from the beginning in a market which it created! Even if Lanier sold the AES products under the AES name, the channel would still be owned by Lanier in that Lanier had its own loyal customer base along with sales and service offices to support this customer base.
   A good practical way to determine appropriate channels for your product would be to start at the point of final purchase. Who is the final consumer or user of your product? Where does that person look when buying your type of product? Once the various channels have been identified, it is easier to determine which ones make the most sense or which ones offer the path of least resistance.


   Promotion is that term which many people confuse with the word «marketing». But promotion is just one of the four Ps and a good «marketer» is not just a good promoter but also a good planner and a good listener.
   Promotion can take many forms: advertising in various media, events, press releases, trade shows, brochures, flyers, and Internet sites to name a few. Promotion means creating awareness although awareness is just the beginning. Good promotion compels the buyer to buy. The «need» for the product must be addressed. How does it solve the customer’s needs (even needs he doesn’t know he has)?
   There is virtually no limit on the amount of TV, radio, and newspaper advertising that one can do. When Apple announced the Macintosh in 1984, it used «shocking» television advertisement that was aired during the American Super Bowl broadcast. What an audience! What an impact! And then it was followed up with an inundation of print advertising as well as focused trade publications and trade shows. Of course, this also resulted in extensive «free» media coverage because of the news worthiness of this innovation.
   Promotion is done with the purpose of not only creating demand, but building brand awareness. The challenge is to come up with another «kleenex» or «coke» or «Tamagochi».
   Source: www.sfu.ca, Business Basics for Engineers by Mike Volker



   1. forecast n – прогноз
   forecast v – прогнозировать
   2. sales revenues – выручка от продаж
   3. distribution channel – канал распределения
   4. pricing n – ценообразование
   5. adjustment n – корректировка
   adjust v – корректировать
   6. advertising budget – бюджет на рекламу
   7. salesperson (salesman) n – сбытовик, специалист по продажам
   8. marketing mix – маркетинговая смесь
   9. variable n – переменная (величина)
   10. retail outlet – точка розничной торговли
   11. high-end a – дорогой, высокого класса
   12. top-of-the-line product – товар высшей категории
   13. invoice n – счет-фактура
   invoice v – выставлять счет-фактуру
   14. loan n – заем
   15. charge n – цена, плата, денежный сбор; расход, издержки; налог, комиссия за услуги; нагрузка; руководство, ответственность; обвинение, нападение
   charge v – нагружать; пропитывать; поручать, вверять, приказывать; обвинять; назначать цену, запрашивать цену; записывать в долг, относить на счет, дебетовать; атаковать
   16. selling price – продажная цена
   17. lag n – отставание, запаздывание
   lag v – отставать, запаздывать
   lagging a – отстающий
   18. advantage n – преимущество
   19. life cycle – жизненный цикл
   20. markup pricing – ценообразование с надбавкой к себестоимости товара
   21. «skimming» prices – цены, «снимающие сливки»
   22. commodity products – товары (чаще всего сырьевые)
   23. going-rate pricing – ценообразование с учетом текущего уровня цен
   24.Free-on-Board (FOB) – «франко-борт судна» (ФОБ)
   25. currency fluctuations – валютные колебания
   26. freight n – фрахт, груз
   freight v – фрахтовать, грузить
   27. middleman n – посредник
   28. emerge v – появляться, проявляться, возникать
   29. customer (client) base – клиентская база
   30. final (end) consumer – конечный потребитель
   31. awareness n – знание, осознание, осведомленность
   (to be) aware (of) pass – осознавать, отдавать себе отчет
   32. coverage n – охват, прикрытие; освещение (событий); общая сумма риска, покрытая страхованием
   cover n – покрытие; гарантийный фонд; страхование; чехол, переплет; убежище, укрытие; покров, личина
   cover v – покрывать, прикрывать, скрывать, обеспечить покрытие; покрывать убытки; страховать; предусматривать; проехать; освещать

   Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
   1. What is the difference between marketing and selling? 2. What should a company do to develop a forecast of sales revenues? 3. What independent variables are included in the marketing mix? 4. What main challenge do you face when you develop the marketing mix? 5. How do different categories of professionals perceive a product of their company? 6. What are the most common pricing strategies? 7. How do companies identify distribution channels? 8. What is the difference between promotion and marketing?

   Exercise 2. Read and translate the text. Find Russian equivalents for different terms used to describe price. Make sentences of your own with each term.
   Price is probably the most flexible variable in the marketing mix. Marketers can usually adjust their prices more easily and more quickly than they can change any other marketing mix variable. To a buyer, price is the value placed on what is exchanged. Something of value – usually purchasing power – is exchanged for satisfaction or utility. Purchasing power depends on a buyer’s income, credit and wealth. It is a mistake to believe that price is always money paid or some other financial consideration. In fact, trading of products – barter – is the oldest form of exchange. Money may or may not be involved.
   Price is expressed in different terms for different exchanges. For instance, automobile insurance companies charge a premium for protection from the cost of injuries or repairs stemming from an automobile accident. An officer who stops you for speeding writes a ticket that requires you to pay a fine. If a lawyer defends you, a fee is charged, and if you use a railway or taxi, a fare is charged. A toll is charged for the use of bridges or turnpikes. Oil companies pay pipeline tariffs for oil transportation, and households pay electricity and gas tariffs.
   Rent is paid for the use of equipment or an apartment. A commission is remitted to an agent for the sale of real estate. Dues are paid for membership in a club or group. A deposit is made to hold or lay away merchandise. A tip helps pay waitresses or waiters for their services. Interest is charged for the loan that you obtain, and taxes are paid for government services. Scientists are paid honorariums for research papers they write, and authors of bestsellers are paid royalties by their publishers. The value of many products is called price. Although price may be expressed in many different ways, it is important to remember that the purpose of this concept is to quantify and express the value of the items in the market exchange.
   Source: Marketing. Concepts and Strategies. 6th edition.
   William M. Pride and O.C. Ferrell,
   Houghton Mifflin Company, 1989, p. 562.

   Exercise 3*. Find in the text 8 English equivalents of the Russian words «цель», «задача» and make sentences of your own using them.

   Exercise 4*. Fill in the blanks using terms given below.

   The Product Life Cycle
   A new product……… through a sequence of stages from introduction to growth, maturity, and decline. This sequence is known as the product life cycle and is associated with changes in the marketing situation, thus impacting the……….. and the…………

   Introduction Stage
   The firm seeks to build………. and develop a market for the product. The impact on the marketing mix is as follows:
   – Product………. and quality level is established, and intellectual property protection such as……… and……….. are obtained.
   – Pricing may be………… to build………. rapidly, or………… to recover…………..
   – Place (distribution) is………. until consumers show acceptance of the product.
   – Promotion is aimed at……… and………. Marketing………… seek to build product awareness and to educate potential consumers about the product.

   Growth Stage
   The firm seeks to build………….. and increase market share.
   – Product quality is maintained and additional……….. and support services may be added.
   – Pricing is maintained as the firm enjoys increasing……… with little competition.
   – Place (distribution channels) are added as demand increases and customers accept the product.
   – Promotion is aimed at broader………

   Maturity Stage
   The strong growth in sales……… Competition may appear with similar products. The primary………. at this point is to defend market share while……… profit.
   – Product features may be enhanced to……… the product from that of competitors.
   – Pricing may be lower because of new competition.
   – Place (distribution) becomes more intensive and………. may be offered to encourage preference over competing products.
   – Promotion ……… on product differentiation.

   Decline Stage
   As sales decline, the firm has several options:
   –……… the product, possibly rejuvenating it by adding new features and finding new uses.
   –Harvest the product —………. and continue to offer it, possibly to a…………
   –……… the product, liquidating remaining……….. or selling it to another firm that is willing to continue the product.
   The marketing mix decisions in the decline phase will depend on the selected strategy. For example, the price may be maintained if the product is harvested, or reduced drastically if liquidated.
   Source: www.quickmba.com

   Terms:
   inventory, discontinue, market share, loyal niche segment, low penetration pricing, objective, incentives, diminishes, differentiate, trademarks, marketing mix, product awareness, branding, patents, high «skimming» pricing, selective, early adopters, brand preference, demand, maximizing, reduce costs, progresses, marketing strategy, development costs, audience, features, maintain, focuses, сommunications

   Exercise 5. Translate into English.

   Маркетинговая стратегия компании Soutec
   Мобильные телефоны Soutec завоевали признание во многих странах Юго-Восточной Азии, Европы, Южной Америки и Африки. Политика компании характеризуется партнерскими и доверительными отношениями с зарубежными представительствами, поэтому специфике рынка страны и потребностям общества уделяется повышенное внимание.
   В отношении российского рынка компания Soutec поставила перед собой цель до конца 2005 года достичь уровня продаж в 250 000 трубок и вывести на рынок 8—10 моделей телефонов разного ценового уровня. Таким образом, компания стремится наиболее полным образом удовлетворять потребности большинства потенциальных покупателей мобильных телефонов и соответствовать быстрым темпам развития рынка как в столице, так и в регионах.
   Объективно оценивая ситуацию на российском рынке мобильных телефонов, компания приняла решение начать свою деятельность в крупнейших региональных городах России, параллельно подготавливая почву для выхода бренда Soutec в Питере и Москве. Маркетинговая активность компании Soutec будет направлена на такие города, как Нижний Новгород, Самара, Казань, Екатеринбург, Пермь, Челябинск, Новосибирск и Омск. В качестве рекламной поддержки планируется использовать наружную рекламу и активный промоушен в салонах сотовой связи.


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