Елена Долматовская.

Изобретения и изобретатели. Учебно-справочное пособие для изучающих английский язык

(страница 2 из 9)

скачать книгу бесплатно

 //-- Types of computerized machinery --// 
   Teletype телетайп
   ENIAC, Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator электронный цифровой интегратор и калькулятор
   BINAC (BINary Automatic) computer сдвоенный автоматизированный компьютер
   MULTICS MULTiplexed Information and Computing System информационно-вычислительная система с мультиплексированием каналов передачи данных

 //-- 1. COMPREHENSION --// 
   a. Arrange the following inventions in chronological order:
   Computer keyboard, typewriter, teletype machine, keypunch, adding machine, punched card, VDT, electronic keyboard,
   b. Fill in the blanks in the table.

 //-- 2. WRITING --// 
   a. Describe the history of the keyboard. Use “Comprehension” section as a support.
   b. Describe the operations you should use when working with the modern keyboard.

 //-- 3. DISCUSSION --// 
   Discuss the problem of improving the design of the modern keyboard.

   Telephone is an instrument that is designed for the simultaneous transmission and reception of the human voice. Inexpensive, simple to operate, and offering its user a personal type of communication that cannot be obtained through the written word, the telephone has become the most widely used telecommunications device. Hundreds of millions of telephone sets are in use throughout the world.
   1896 Telephone (Swedish)

   The word telephone, from the Greek roots tele, “far,” and phone, “sound,” was applied as early as the late 17th century; in modern usage it refers solely to electrical devices derived from the inventions of Alexander Graham Bell [2 - Alexander Graham Bell. Bell was born in 1847, in Edinburgh and educated at the universities of Edinburgh and London. He immigrated to Canada in 1870 and to the United States in 1871. In the U.S. he began teaching deaf-mutes, publicizing the system called visible speech. The system, which was developed by his father, the Scottish educator Alexander Melville Bell (1819-1905), shows how the lips, tongue, and throat are used in the articulation of sound. In 1872 Bell founded a school for deaf-mutes in Boston. The school subsequently became part of Boston University, where Bell was appointed professor of vocal physiology. He became a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1882.Since the age of 18, Bell had been working on the idea of transmitting speech electrically. While Alexander Graham Bell was experimenting with telegraph instruments in the early 1870s, he realized it might be possible to transmit the human voice over a wire by using electricity.
By March 1876 he made a transmission, but the sound was very faint. He improved his results over the next few months when he transmitted sound clearly between Cambridge and Salem, Massachusetts. It functioned as both a transmitter and a receiver.] and others. The U.S. patent granted to Bell in March 1876 for the development of a device to transmit speech sounds over electric wires is often said to be the most valuable ever issued. The general concepts involved in the invention of the telephone–of speech sounds as a complex of vibrations in air that is transferrable to solid bodies and of the convertibility of those vibrations to electrical impulses in conducting metals–had by then been understood for decades. Bell was but one of a number of workers racing to pull them together into a practical instrument for the transmission of speech.
   Within 20 years of the Bell patent, the telephone instrument, as modified by Thomas Watson, Emil Berliner, Thomas Edison, and others, acquired a form that has not changed fundamentally in a century. Since the invention of the transistor in 1947, metal wiring and other heavy hardware have been replaced by lightweight and compact microcircuitry. Advances in electronics have improved the performance of the basic design, and they also have allowed the introduction of a number of “smart” features such as automatic redialing, call-number identification, and analog-to-digital conversion for transmission over digital circuits. Such advances supplement, but do not replace, the basic telephone design. As it has since the early years of telephone communication, the telephone instrument comprises the following functional components: a power source, a switch hook, a dialer, a ringer, a transmitter, a receiver, and an anti-sidetone circuit.

 //-- Telephone devices and operational features --// 
   (telephon)e set (телефонный) аппарат
   analog-to-digital conversion преобразование аналоговой формы в цифровую
   anti-sidetone circuit характеристика местного эффекта
   call-number identification определение номеров входящих звонков
   dialer номеронабиратель
   hardware аппаратное обеспечение
   microcircuitry микросхемы
   receiver телефонная трубка
   reception прием (звонка)
   redialing повторный набор номера
   ringer звонок
   switch hook рычажный переключатель телефона
   transmission передача
   transmitter микрофон
   wire провод

 //-- Processes --// 
   operate управлять, контролировать
   pull тянуть, натягивать
   transmit передавать
   apply применять

 //-- Qualities --// 
   faint слабый, нечеткий
   transferrable передаваемый

 //-- 1. COMPREHENSION --// 
   Complete the table using information from the text.

 //-- 2. WRITING --// 
   a. Write a few paragraphs (one or three) about the inventions you have read about. Use the table above as a support.
   b. Answer (in written) the question: “What kind of telephone do you use at home?”

 //-- 3. DISCUSSION --// 

   a. Describe (orally) a telephone that you wish someone could invent for you.
   b. If you think you could invent a new type of a telephone yourself say how.

   Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web. His first version of the Web was a program named “Enquire”. At the time, Berners-Lee was working at the European Particle Physics Laboratory located in Geneva, Switzerland. He invented the system as a way of sharing scientific data (and other information) around the world, using the Internet, a world-wide network of computers, and hypertext documents. He wrote the language HTML (HyperText Mark-up Language), the basic language for the Web, and devised URL’s (universal resource locators) to designate the location of each web page. HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) was his set of rules for linking to pages on the Web. After he wrote the first browser in 1990, the World Wide Web was up and going. Its growth was (and still is) phenomenal, and has changed the world, making information more accessible than ever before in history. Berners-Lee is now a Principal Research Scientist at the Laboratory for Computer Science at the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Cambridge, Massachusett, USA) and the Director of the W3 Consortium. which develops and maintains these and other standards that enable computers on the Web to effectively store and communicate different forms of information
   At its core, the Web is made up of three standards:
   1. the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), which is a universal system for used for referring to resources (such as documents and images on the Internet) such as Web pages;
   2. the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which specifies how the browser and server communicate with each other; HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the method used to transfer or convey information on the World Wide Web;
   3. the HyperText Markup Language (HTML), used to define the structure and content of hypertext documents. ‘HyperText Markup Language’ (HTML) is a markup language designed for the creation of web pages with hypertext and other information to be displayed in a web browser.
   The World Wide Web is the combination of four basic ideas:
   • hypertext, that is the ability, in a computer environment, to move from one part of a document to another or from one document to another through internal connections among these documents;
   • resource identifiers, that is the ability, on a computer network, to locate a particular resource (computer, document or other resource) on the network through a unique identifier;
   • the client-server model of computing, in which client software or a client computer makes requests of server software or a server computer that provides the client with resources or services, such as data or files; and
   • markup language, in which characters or codes embedded in text indicate to a computer how to print or display the text, e.g. as in italics or bold type or font.
   On the World Wide Web, a client program called a web browser retrieves information resources, such as web pages and other computer files, from web servers using their network addresses and displays them, typically on a computer monitor, using a markup language that determines the details of the display. The act of following hyperlinks is often called “browsing” the Web. Web pages are often arranged in collections of related material called “websites.” The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is an international consortium where member organizations, a full-time staff, and the public, work together to develop standards for the World Wide Web. W3C’s mission is: “To lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing protocols and guidelines that ensure long-term growth for the Web”.

 //-- Internet --// 
   The Internet, or simply the Net, is the publicly accessible worldwide system of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using a standardized Internet Protocol (IP). It is made up of thousands of smaller commercial, academic, domestic, and government networks. It carries various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web.
   From its creation in 1983 it grew rapidly beyond its largely academic origin into an increasingly commercial and popular medium.By the mid-1990s the Internet connected millions of computers throughout the world. Many commercial computer network and data services also provided at least indirect connection to the Internet.
   Contrary to some common usage, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not synonymous: the Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, etc.; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents, linked by hyperlinks and URLs, and is accessible using the Internet.

   WWW (World Wide Web) всемирная паутина – глобальное информационное пространство, основанное на физической инфраструктуре сети Интернет и протоколе передачи данных HTTP
   HTML (англ. Hypertext Markup Language) язык разметки гипертекста
   HTTP (англ. Hypertext Transfer Protocol) «протокол передачи гипертекста»
   URI (англ. Uniform Resource Identifier) единообразный идентификатор ресурса
   URL (англ. Uniform Resource Locator) единообразный локатор (определитель местонахождения) ресурса.
   Web browser браузер
   Consortium консорциум

 //-- 1. COMPREHENSION --// 
   Complete the table using information from the text

 //-- 2. WRITING --// 
   a. Write a paragraph describing the difference between the WWW and the Internet .
   b. Write the translation of the paragraph in which the four main concepts of the WWW are presented.

 //-- 3. DISCUSSION --// 
   Say when and how you use WWW and Internet.

   1. You have read about some inventions that help us communicate with one another. What other inventions with the same function do you remember? Try to describe them in written form.
   2. Give an oral description of the most useful (in your opinion) invention of this group.

   As is known, camera is a device (in photography) for recording an image of an object on a light-sensitive surface; it is essentially a light-tight box with an aperture to admit light focused onto a sensitized film or plate. Though there are many types of cameras, all include five indispensable components: (1) the camera box, which holds and protects the sensitive film from all light except that entering through the lens; (2) film, on which the image is recorded, a light-sensitive strip usually wound on a spool, either manually or automatically, as successive pictures are taken; (3) the light control, consisting of an aperture or diaphragm and a shutter, both often adjustable; (4) the lens, which focuses the light rays from the subject onto the film, creating the image, and which is usually adjustable by moving forward or back, changing the focus; and (5) the viewing system, which may be separate from the lens system (usually above it) or may operate through it by means of a mirror. Today’s cameras all derive from the 16th-century camera obscura. The first camera that was small and portable enough to be practical for photography was built by Johann Zahn in 1685, though it would be almost 150 years before technology caught up to the point where this was possible. The earliest form of this device was a darkened room with a tiny hole in one wall. Light entered the room through this hole and projected an upside-down image of the subject onto the opposite wall. Early photographic cameras were essentially similar to Zahn’s model, though usually with the addition of sliding boxes for focusing. Before each exposure a sensitized plate would be inserted in front of the viewing screen to record the image. Over the course of three centuries the camera obscura evolved into a handheld box with a lens replacing the pinhole and an angled mirror at the back. The mirror reflected an image onto a ground-glass viewing screen on the top of the box. The inventors of photography in the early 19th century adapted the camera obscura by adding a device for holding sensitized plates in the back of the box. The first permanent photograph was made in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce using a sliding wooden box camera made by Charles and Vincent Chevalier in Paris.
   Jacques Daguerre‘s popular daguerreotype process utilized copper plates, while the process invented by William Fox Talbot recorded images on paper This kind of camera, with some improvements, was used throughout the 19th century. One notable enhancement for the box, pleated leather sides called bellows, allowed the photographer to easily adjust the distance between the lens and the plane of focus. Professional photographers still use a similar camera today, a large-format camera known as the view camera In the 1880s the invention of more sensitive emulsions and better lenses led to the development of lens shutters, devices that could limit the time of exposure to a fraction of a second. At first the shutter was simply a blind dropped in front of the lens by the force of gravity, or by a spring. Later designs featured a set of blades just behind the optical lens.
   In 1888 George Eastman introduced the first Kodak camera, which used a cylindrical shutter that the photographer turned by pulling a string on the front of the camera. It made photography available to amateurs for the first time and created a snapshot craze at the turn of the 20th century.. In 1884 Eastman patented the first film in roll form to prove practicable; in 1888 he perfected the Kodak camera, the first camera designed specifically for roll film. The Kodak was one of the earliest handheld cameras.
   In 1925 the Leitz Company in Germany introduced the Leica, one of the first cameras to use 35-millimeter film, a small-sized film initially designed for motion pictures. Because of its compactness and economy, the Leica and other 35-millimeter cameras became popular with both amateur and professional photographers.

 //-- Camera components and design --// 
   a. Nouns
   aperture отверстие
   bellows мех фотоаппарата
   blind шторка
   camera obscura камера обскура («темная комната»)
   daguerreotype дагерротип
   diaphragm диафрагма
   film пленка
   image образ; изображение; отражение
   lens линза, оптическое стекло; лупа; объектив
   plate пластина
   recording регистрация, запись (чего-л. куда-л.)
   shutter затвор фотообъектива
   spool шпулька, катушка; бобина
   surface поверхность

   b. Adjectives
   light-tight светонепроницаемый
   light-sensitive светочувствительный

 //-- 1. COMPREHENSION --// 
   Complete the table using information from the text

 //-- 2. WRITING --// 
   a. Write a paragraph, describing camera obscura. Translate your paragraph into Russian
   b. Write a paragraph giving the comparison of the camera obscura and the modern camera. Use the first paragraph of the text “Camera” as a support.
 //-- 3. DISCUSSION --// 
   a. Name all the steps in the development of the camera in photography during the 19th and 20th centuries.
   b. Speak on the functions of the components of any modern camera.

   The saxophone or sax is a conical instrument of the wind family, usually made of brass and played with a single-reed mouthpiece like the clarinet.
   The saxophone was created in the early 1840s by Adolphe Sax, a Belgian-born instrument-maker and clarinetist working in Paris, and was first officially revealed to the public in the patent of 1846. He drew up plans for 14 different types of saxophones, but they were not all realized.
   It is likely that Sax’s intent was to invent an entirely new instrument which suited his desires both tonally and technically and possessed a new level of flexibility. This would explain why he chose to name the instrument the “voice of Sax.” In short, Sax intended to harness the finesse of a woodwind with the power of a brass instrument. The saxophone is most commonly associated with popular music, big band music, and jazz, but it was originally intended as both an orchestral and military band instrument.
   Construction. The saxophone combines in its construction the single reed and mouthpiece of the clarinet, a metal body, and a widened version of the conical bore of the oboe. The body contains openings, covered by keys, which can be opened or closed in groups by means of finger plates, operated by the fingers of either hand. Most saxophones are curved at the end and resemble the bass clarinet; a few, such as the soprano saxophone, are straight and resemble the standard clarinet. The most common saxophones are the soprano, the alto, the tenor, and the baritone. The tone quality ranges from soft, flutelike, and mellow to brassy and metallic.There is some debate amongst players as to whether the curve affects the tone or not.
   Materials. Nearly all saxophones are made from brass. After completing the instrument, manufacturers usually apply either a coating of clear or colored lacquer, or plating of silver or gold, over the bare brass. The lacquer or plating serves to protect the brass from corrosion, to enhance sound quality, and/or to give the saxophone an interesting visual appearance.
   Other materials have been tried with varying degrees of success. Prior to 1960, some instruments were plated with nickel as a cheaper alternative to silver; prior to 1930, it was common for instruments to be sold with a bare brass finish (without lacquer or plating).

 //-- Musical instruments and music variations --// 
   band music оркестровая музыка
   bass бас, басовый
   brass instrument медный духовой инструмент
   clarinet кларнет
   flute флейта
   jazz джаз
   oboe гобой
   wind instrument духовой инструмент
 //-- Elements of saxophone construction --// 
   bell раструб (в частности у духовых музыкальных инструментов), расширение
   body корпус
   bore отверстие
   finger plate наборный диск, пластина
   keys клапаны, клавиатура
   mouthpiece мундштук
   opening отверстие
   reed язычок в музыкальных инструментах (в фаготе, гобое, саксофоне)
 //-- Materials --// 
   gold золото
   lacquer лак
   nickel никель
   silver серебро
 //-- Quality of the musical instrument --// 
   appearance внешний вид
   brassy металлический (о звуке)
   finesse тонкость, изящество
   flexibility гибкость, переналаживаемость
   level уровень
   mellow мягкий, неторопливый
   tone звук, тон
 //-- Processess --// 
   create создавать
   curve изгибать
   enhance усиливать, улучшать
   protect защищать, предохранять
   realize осуществлять, выполнять
   reveal открывать; показывать
 //-- Verbs with abstract positive meaning --// 
   desire желать
   enhance усиливать, улучшать
   intend намереваться
   possess обладать
   resemble напоминать
   suit подходить, соответствовать

 //-- 1. COMPREHENSION --// 

   a. Complete the table using information from the text.
   b. Complete the diagram using information from the text.
 //-- 2. WRITING --// 

   Write a summary of the text using the table and the diagram above as a support.

скачать книгу бесплатно

страницы: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное