Елена Долматовская.

Изобретения и изобретатели. Учебно-справочное пособие для изучающих английский язык

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|  Елена Юрьевна Долматовская
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|  Изобретения и изобретатели. Учебно-справочное пособие для изучающих английский язык
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   Настоящее пособие предназначено для тех читателей, которым хотелось бы узнать больше о значимых изобретениях в истории человечества, о влиянии этих изобретений на современную жизнь и, в то же время, сделать это с помощью чтения оригинальной английской литературы, тем самым повысив и свой уровень владения английским языком. Последнему должны помочь как интерес к содержанию пособия, так и специальные упражнения, предназначенные для развития умений понять, обобщить, зафиксировать и обсудить на английском языке ключевые моменты текстов об изобретениях и изобретателях.
   Пособие состоит из шести учебно-справочных разделов (UNITS), обобщающих тексты по тематическому принципу (роль изобретений в определенных областях современной жизни), и Приложения: ключи к упражнениям, базовый словарь, обобщенный список 50 наиболее важных изобретений XVIII–XX веков, представленных в хронологическом порядке.
   Структура первых 5 разделов пособия однотипна – после каждого из текстов о конкретном изобретении дается англо-русский словарик и упражнения на развитие умений понять текст, выделить главное, зафиксировать полученную информацию в письменной форме, умений обсудить информацию о каждом изобретении на английском языке устно. Организация материала и построение 6 раздела (MISCELLANEOUS) предполагает использование умений, полученных при работе над первыми разделами, при самостоятельном чтении, выборочно, с учетом интересов читающего.
   Приложение (SUPPLEMENT) выполняет вспомогательную роль – в случае необходимости читатель может проверить точность выполнения упражнений, требующих однозначного решения, по ключам, воспользоваться общим англо-русским словарем, а также сопоставить появление изобретений по времени.
   В пособии представлены как древнейшие изобретения человечества, например, винт Архимеда или червячное колесо, так и история появления Интернета, WWW, современных компакт-дисков и т.п. При составлении пособия были использованы оригинальные справочные тексты на английском языке (Энциклопедия “Britannica”, “Encarta”, “Wikipedia”).



   It is a slender rod of a solid marking substance, such as graphite, enclosed in a cylinder of wood, metal, or plastic; used as an implement for writing, drawing, or marking.
   Invention of the Pencil.
In 1565 the German-Swiss naturalist Conrad Gesner first described a writing instrument in which graphite, then thought to be a type of lead, was inserted into a wooden holder. Gesner was the first to describe graphite as a separate mineral, and in 1779 the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed it to be a form of carbon. The name graphite is from the Greek graphein, “to write.” The modern lead pencil became possible when an unusually pure deposit of graphite was discovered in 1564 in Borrowdale, Cumberland, England. The pure graphite was sawn into sheets and then cut into square rods. The graphite rods were inserted into hand-carved wooden holders, forming pencils. They were called lead pencils by mistake – at the time, the newly-discovered graphite was called black lead – it looked and acted like lead, and it was not known at the time that graphite consisted of carbon and not lead. The English had a monopoly on the production of pencils since no other pure graphite mines were known and no one had yet found a way to make graphite sticks.
   The Germans manufactured graphite sticks (made from powdered graphite), but they were impractical. The breakthrough in pencil technology came when French chemist Nicolas Conte developed and patented the process used to make pencils in 1795. He used a mixture of clay and graphite that was fired before it was put in a wooden case. The pencils he made were cylindrical with a slot. The square lead was glued into the slot and a thin strip of wood was used to fill the rest of the slot. Conte’s method of kiln firing powdered graphite and clay allowed pencils to be made to any hardness or softness by varying the ratio of graphite to clay.
   The more graphite used, the “softer,” or darker, is the mark made. Some pencil manufacturers use the letter “H” to indicate a hard pencil. Likewise, a pencil maker might use the letter “B” to designate the blackness of the pencil’s mark. Pencil makers also use combinations of letters – a pencil marked “HB” is hard and black; a pencil marked “HH” is very hard, and a pencil marked “HHBBB” is very hard and really, really black! In 1812 the American William Monroe invented a process still used today by which the graphite-clay mixture could be encased between two pieces of cedar wood.
   In 1861, Eberhard Faber built the first pencil factory in the United States in New York City.
   The mechanical pencil, patented in 1877, consists of a cylindrical piece of pencil lead inserted into a metal or plastic barrel against a movable rod that can be adjusted by a screwing motion to expose part of the lead. The basic design of the mechanical pencil changed little until a modification of a mechanical drafting pencil was introduced in 1976. Originally marketed as a trade tool for engineers, drafters, and artists, the thin-lead mechanical pencil is now used by the general population.
   Pencil sharpener

   A pencil sharpener is a device for sharpening a pencil‘s point by shaving one end. Pencil sharpeners are available in both electric and hand-powered forms.
   It was John Lee Love of Fall River, MA who designed the “Love Sharpener”. Love’s invention was the very simple, portable pencil sharpener. The pencil is put into the opening of the sharpener and rotated by hand, and the shavings stay inside the sharpener. A blade inside the sharpener shaves the wood of the pencil, thus sharpening the tip. Such sharpeners can be bare or they are enclosed in a container to collect the shavings. A mechanical pencil sharpener is hand-powered. Love’s sharpener was patented on November 23, 1897 (U.S.)


 //-- Materials --// 
   carbon углерод
   cedar кедр
   clay глина
   graphite графит
   lead свинец
   plastics пластмасса
   wood дерево

 //-- Qualities of materials --// 
   hardness твердость
   softness мягкость

 //-- Elements of pencil design --// 
   cylinder-shaped tool инструмент цилиндрической формы
   stick палочка
   wooden holders деревянная ручка, держатель
   pencil lead грифель карандаша
   pencil’s point кончик карандаша

 //-- Auxiliaries --// 
   blade лезвие
   device прибор, устройство
   electric pencil sharpener электрическая точилка для карандашей
   pencil sharpener точилка для карандаша

 //-- Processes --// 
   cut (cut, cut) резать
   enclose вкладывать, вставлять
   fire поджигать
   glue клеить
   insert вставлять
   kiln обжигать (в печи)
   power приводить в действие
   rotate вращать(ся)
   saw (sawed, sawn) пилить


 //-- 1. COMPREHENSION --// 
   Complete the table using information from the text

 //-- 2. WRITING --// 
   a. Write a few paragraphs (one or three) about the inventions you have read about. Use the table above as a support.
   b. Answer (in written) the question: “How could we live without a pencil?”

 //-- 3. DISCUSSION --// 

   1. Describe (orally) a pencil that you wish someone could invent for you.
   2. If you think you could do it yourself say how.




   Morse code is a system of representing letters, numbers and punctuation marks by means of a code signal sent intermittently. It was developed by Samuel Morse [1 - Samuel F.B. Morse. Although he is remembered as the inventor of the telegraph, Samuel Morse’s first career was as an artist. From 1810 through the 1830s he studied and taught painting in Europe and the United States. On a trip from Europe, Morse met U.S. scientist Charles Thomas Jackson, who had been studying electricity and the electromagnet in Paris. Morse became interested in the idea that electricity could facilitate human communication. Upon his return he broke from painting to work on developing an electric telegraph. European inventors were attempting similar projects, but Morse was the one who, in May 1844, successfully transmitted the first telegraph message–“What hath God wrought”–from Washington to Baltimore.] and Alfred Vail in 1835.
   Morse code is a method for transmitting information, using standardized sequences of short and long marks or pulses – commonly known as “dots” and “dashes” – for the letters, numerals and special characters of a message. Originally created for Samuel Morse‘s electric telegraph in the mid-1830s, it was also extensively used for early radio communication beginning in the 1890s. However, with the development of more advanced communications technologies, the widespread use of Morse code is now largely obsolete, apart from emergency use and other specialized purposes, including navigational radio beacons, and by CW (continuous wave) amateur radio operators. Morse code is the only digital modulation mode designed to be easily read by humans without a computer, making it appropriate for sending automated digital data in voice channels, as well as making it ideal for emergency signaling, such as by way of improvised energy sources that can be easily “keyed” such as by supplying and removing electric power (e.g. by switching a breaker on and off).
   Morse code can be transmitted in a number of ways: originally as electrical pulses along a telegraph wire, but also as an audio tone, as a radio signal with short and long pulses or tones, or as a mechanical or visual signal (e.g. a flashing light) using devices like an Aldis lamp or a heliograph. Because Morse code is transmitted using just two states – on and off – it was an early form of a digital code. International Morse code is composed of six elements:
   1. short mark, dot or “dit” (·)
   2. longer mark, dash or “dah” (–)
   3. intra-character gap (between the dots and dashes within a character)
   4. short gap (between letters)
   5. medium gap (between words)
   6. long gap (between sentences)
   However, the variable length of the Morse characters made it hard to adapt to automated communication, so it was largely replaced by more regular formats.
   What is called Morse code today actually differs somewhat from what was originally developed by Alfred Vail in collaboration with Morse. In 1848 a refinement of the code sequences, including changes to eleven of the letters, was developed in Germany and eventually adopted as the worldwide standard as “International Morse”.


 //-- Telegraph message terminology --// 
   arbitrary signal условный сигнал
   CW (continuous wave) незатухающая волна
   digital communication цифровая связь
   dit дит (десятичная единица информации)
   dot точка (условный знак в азбуке Морзе)
   emergency use использование в случае аварии
   letter буква
   modulation mode режим модуляции
   Morse code азбука Морзе
   number цифра
   obsolete code устарелый, вышедший из употребления код
   punctuation mark знак пунктуации
   radio beacon радиомаяк
   sequences of “dots” and “dashes” последовательность точек и тире

 //-- 1. COMPREHENSION --// 
   Present the main points of the text in Russian. Don’t forget to show – when, how and where Morse code was invented and whether it is used now.

 //-- 2. WRITING --// 
   Write a paragraph in English describing the life of Samuel Morse and his first telegraph message.

 //-- 3. DISCUSSION. --// 

   If you think the invention of Morse code affects our lives today, say how. If it doesn’t, say why.




   A pen is a writing instrument which applies ink to some surface. Pens may be categorized by the kind of tip on them. The main modern types are:
   • ballpoint pens
   • fountain pens
   • marker pens
   Ballpoints, fountain pens and gel pens are sometimes erasable: their ink may be erased.
   There are two basic types of the ballpoint pen: disposable and refillable.
   Ballpoint pens date from the late 19th century. Commercial models appeared in 1895, but the first satisfactory model was patented by Laslo Biro, a Hungarian living in Argentina. His ball-point pen, commonly called the “biro,” became popular in Great Britain during the late 1930s, and by the mid-1940s pens of this type were widely used throughout much of the world. The writing tip of a ballpoint pen consists of a metal ball, housed in a socket, that rotates freely and rolls quick-drying ink onto the writing surface. The ball is constantly bathed in ink from a reservoir, one end of which is open and attached to the writing tip.
   The word used for ballpoint pens in Argentina is birome because Laslo Biro lived there for many years; also, biro can be used to refer to a ballpoint pen in British English. It was originally invented for the British RAF (Royal Air Force), as problems occurred with fountain pens due to the low air pressure aboard planes in flight. Ballpoint pens are still widely referred to as a biro in many countries, notably several European countries, the UK, Australia and New Zealand. Argentina’s Inventor’s Day is celebrated on Biro’s birthday.
   Soft-tip pens that use points made of porous materials became commercially available during the 1960s. In such pens a synthetic polymer of controlled porosity transfers ink from the reservoir to the writing surface. These fibre-tipped pens can be used for lettering and drawing as well as for writing and may be employed on surfaces such as plastic and glass.


 //-- Types of pens, their elements and components --// 
   ballpoint pen шариковая ручка
   fountain pen перьевая авторучка
   marker pen маркер
   tip кончик
   socket гнездо, углубление
   biro 1) «Байро» (фирменное название шариковых ручек компании «Байро Бик» [Biro Bic]) по имени изобретателя; 2) шариковая ручка (разг.)
 //-- Qualities --// 
   erasable стираемый

 //-- 1. COMPREHENSION --// 

   Complete the table using information from the text

 //-- 2. WRITING --// 
   a. Write a few paragraphs (one or three) about the inventions you have read about. Use the table above as a support.
   b. Answer (in written) the question: “How could we live without a pen?”

 //-- 3. DISCUSSION --// 

   a. Describe (orally) a pen that you wish someone could invent for you.
   b. If you think you could do it yourself say how.




   A typewriter is a mechanical, electromechanical, or electronic device with a set of “keys” that, when pressed, cause characters to be printed on a document, usually paper.

   A typewriter has a keyboard, with keys for each of the characters in its font. The method by which the typewriter actually marks the paper now varies as greatly as types of computer printers do, but until the end of the 20th century was by the impact of a metal (or, later, metallized plastic) type element against an “inked” ribbon which caused ink to be deposited on the paper. Carbon paper was sometimes inserted between multiple pieces of paper, so the impact also caused duplicate characters to be printed on each layer of paper. The invention of various kinds of machines was attempted in the 19th century. Most were large and cumbersome, some resembling pianos in size and shape. All were much slower to use than handwriting. Finally, in 1867, the American inventor Christopher Latham Sholes read an article in the journal Scientific American describing a new British-invented machine and was inspired to construct what became the first practical typewriter. His second model, patented in 1868, wrote at a speed far exceeding that of a pen. It was a crude machine, but Sholes added many improvements in the next few years, and in 1873 he signed a contract with E. Remington and Sons, gunsmiths, N.Y., for manufacture. The first typewriters were placed on the market in 1874, and the machine was soon renamed the Remington. Among its original features that were still standard in machines built a century later were the cylinder, with its line-spacing and carriage-return mechanism; the escapement, which causes the letter spacing by carriage movement; the arrangement of the typebars so as to strike the paper at a common centre; the actuation of the typebars by means of key levers and connecting wires; printing through an inked ribbon; and the positions of the different characters on the keyboard, which conform almost exactly to the arrangement that is now universal. Mark Twain purchased a Remington and became the first author to submit a typewritten book manuscript.
   The first typewriter had no shift-key mechanism–it wrote capital letters only. The problem of printing both capitals and small letters without increasing the number of keys was solved by placing two types, a capital and lowercase of the same letter, on each bar, in combination with a cylinder-shifting mechanism. The first shift-key typewriter–the Remington Model 2–appeared on the market in 1878.
   Although still popular with a few writers and in less developed countries, the typewriter has largely been replaced by the word processor application on a personal computer.


 //-- Typewriter design and its operation. --// 
   arrangement расположение
   carbon paper копировальная бумага
   carriage каретка
   carriage return mechanism механизм возврата каретки
   character знак
   duplicate дубликат
   escapement спуск каретки на позицию, равную одному знаку
   font шрифт
   handwriting почерк
   impact удар
   key lever клавишный рычаг
   keyboard клавиатура
   layer слой
   line spacing межстрочный интервал
   ribbon лента
   shape форма
   shift-key клавиша в пишущей машинке для смены регистра
   size размер
   typebars литерный рычаг
   word processor текстовой процессор

 //-- Processes related to the operation of a typewriter --// 
   insert вставлять
   manufacture производить
   mark отмечать, ставить метку
   press нажимать
   rename переименовать
   strike ударять
   print печатать


 //-- 1. COMPREHENSION --// 
   Complete the table using information from the text

 //-- 2. WRITING --// 
   a. Write a paragraph about the design of the typewriter and about changes in the design. Use the table above as a support.
   b. Answer (in written) the question: “What kind of a typewriter do you prefer?”

 //-- 3. DISCUSSION --// 

   a. If you think you could invent the new type of typewriter what would it be?
   b. Why are the keys on the keyboard of a typewriter arranged the way they are?
   c. Do you think the invention of a typewriter affects our lives today.




   The invention of the modern computer keyboard began with the invention of the typewriter.
   A few key technological developments created the transition of the typewriter into the computer keyboard. The teletype machine, introduced in the 1930s, combined the technology of the typewriter (used as an input and a printing device) with the telegraph. Elsewhere, punched card systems were combined with typewriters to create what was called keypunches. Keypunches were the basis of early adding machines and IBM was selling over one million dollars worth of adding machines in 1931.
   Early computer keyboards were first adapted from the punch card and teletype technologies. In 1946, the Eniac computer used a punched card reader as its input and output device. In 1948, the Binac computer used an electromechanically controlled typewriter to both input data directly onto magnetic tape (for feeding the computer data) and to print results. The emerging electric typewriter further improved the technological marriage between the typewriter and the computer.
   Earlier computer keyboards had been based either on teletype machines or keypunches. There were many electromechanical steps in transmitting data between the keyboard and the computer that slowed things down. With VDT (Video Display Terminal) technology and electric keyboards, the keyboard’s keys could now send electronic impulses directly to the computer and save time. By the late ’70s and early ’80s, all computers used electronic keyboards and VDTs. Nevertheless, the layout of the computer keyboard still owes its origin to the inventor of the first typewriter, Christopher Latham Sholes who also invented the QWERTY layout.


 //-- Keyboard design --// 
   QWERTY стандартная клавиатура с буквами Q-W-E-R-T-Y в верхнем ряду. (Определяет для английского языка стандартное расположение клавиш на клавиатуре.)
   Punch card перфокарта
   Keypunch клавишный перфоратор
   Keyboard клавиатура


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